The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of how children's activities at Shigoto develop into musical expression. The paper consists of the following: 1. Organize the previous research and clarify the analytic view of research and practices. 2. Give an overview of the research and practices of Shigoto. 3. Analyse the research and practices from the perspective of the following question: "What are the words and actions that serve as cues for leading to the next activity?" 4. Discuss the results of the analysis and draw a conclusion. The conclusions are as follows. 1. Repetition of the direct experience. 2. Emergence of musical awareness. 3. Further repetition of the direct experience. 4. Focusing attention on the musical element.
The purpose of this research is to examine the methods of implementing body expressions in music appreciation lessons of Japanese folk songs from the perspective of synchronised movements, and to clarify the effectiveness of such methods. First, the author has clarified the significance of learning Japanese folk songs through the perspective of synchronised movements by examining previous works. Next, the author has conducted a music appreciation lesson on 'Yagibushi' that incorporates the creation of 'Bon Odori,' which is conceived by the author as a traditional Japanese body expression used by a particular community of people. The author has analysed all video recordings taken during the lesson from the perspective of bodily synchronisation. From the results of the analysis, the author has examined the method of implementing bodily movements in the music appreciation lesson on 'Yagibushi', and has discussed the effectiveness of such method. The author has drawn the following conclusions: 1. When learning 'Yagibushi', the fourth-grade elementary school students were made to imitate the basic steps of Bon Odori, treating those steps as the 'mould' for their movements, and to use those as the base for creating the dance movements to the accompanying rhythm. 2. When creating the dance movements to the accompanying rhythm, many groups moved in synchronisation. 3. Through the bodily synchronisation, the movements to the beat and the corresponding images had a continuous reciprocal influence on each other. 4. As a result, the images became more diversified and the children's feelings became deeper. 5. The above implies that the method of having students imitate the steps of Bon Odori and using it as the base for creating dance was effective because it easily enables synchronised movements and thus deepens the children's feelings. Further research on testing these results in lessons on different Japanese folk songs is suggested.
The objective of this research is to clarify, via educational practice research methods, the logic involved in the problem-solving process of children in music making lessons perceived as artistic inquiry based on the theory of inquiry by John Dewey. First, the logical framework of artistic inquiry has been derived from Dewey's works. Next, based on the derived framework, a music making lesson perceived as artistic inquiry has been planned and carried out, and the methods used by children to resolve problems have been analyzed. The following has been identified from this research as the logic of problem-solving process of children in music making lessons perceived as artistic inquiry. Problems result from the transformation of the situation brought about by the gap between the sound which children conceptualize and the actual resulting sound. Children create a musical work by manipulating musical elements in order to resolve these problems and arrive at the determinate situation. Articulation of image occurs through this process, and the gap between the new concept and the actual resulting sound creates further transformation of the situation. Children complete a musical work by repeating this process, resolving problems and arriving at the determinate situation.
The purpose of this paper is to determine the effects of warabeuta on the process of song making by a clue child, Y, through the analysis of a warabeuta-based song making activity at a special needs class in an elementary school. "Song making" in this paper refers to making lyrics and adding melody to the lyrics so that the composer can sing alone or with other children. First, the significance of using the characteristics of warabeuta for song making has been investigated. Second, the process of a warabeuta-based song making activity using Koto at a special needs class in an elementary school has been analyzed with a focus on the changes in Y's song making. Finally, the effects of warabeuta on Y's song making process are discussed. The conclusions are as follows: 1) Through the experience of playing and singing warabeuta, and playing it with Koto, Y became aware of the musical elements, idioms and forms embedded in warabeuta and was able to use them freely to make his own song. 2) When Y changed the lyrics of warabeuta to make his own version, he was able to recall and sing his own daily experience with emotion. Due to the effects of warabeuta, Y was able to express himself through the warabeuta-based song making activity with high motivation and without difficulty.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the aspects of "nori" through the analysis of children's melody-making by examining the changes in children's musical expressions after they have been introduced to the rhythm of "Awa Odori". The results have shown that "the original musical buds" exist inside Japanese-speaking children. "The original musical buds" here refers to the spontaneous appearance of musical expressions that matches the rhythm of traditional Japanese music.