Purpose The purpose of this study is to clarify the process of transformation from spoken words to songs through an analysis of the unit on "Create Hyakunin-Isshu and Sing it." Method First, an overview of the research class and the method of analysis are discussed. This paper next examines the research class, in which a selected student's singing displays remarkable change over three periods. These periods are the early stage of singing, a mid-term presentation, and a final presentation. This is examined considering the following points: 1) How were the words created in Hyakunin-Isshu sung? Moreover, how was the singing transformed over time? 2) What factors caused the above transformation? 3) How did the image of the selected child's inner world form and develop along with the change in his/her way of singing? Finally, the results of the analysis and the research itself are discussed. Conclusion First, the spoken words became rhythmic, and then a transformation due to elements such as intonation in words and extended vowels, agogics, and changes in dynamics and tone color of the voice began. At this time, in conjunction with the formation and development of the image of the student's inner world, a variety of musical elements appeared. Furthermore, in this setting - either the class as a whole or in group activities - effective communication with others via sound and language occurred.
This study clarifies the process of generating meaning in lower elementary Warabe-uta-learning classes that introduce the creation of play by focusing on body function. First, we reconsidered the meaning generation process as formulated by Dewey by focusing on body function. Then, on the basis of the perspective gained from this process, we analysed Warabe-uta-learning classes that incorporate the creation of play in the form of bodily expression. From the results of our analysis, we conclude the following about the process of generating meaning in lower elementary Warabe-uta learning. 1) While modifying a child's play, that is, transforming and generating play, each child's body accepts and simultaneously embodies a 'quality'. 2) The modification of play predicts a shared 'sense' between the subject and others. 3) Play directed at a shared 'sense' is further modified, and within that, specific play is selected and repeated. 4) The selected and repeated play is established as an expression of a quality, 'signification', which is identified by the play at the same time as it becomes 'significance' to the group, and a 'sense' is then generated and shared.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of sharing meaning through sympathy in "Graphic Score Making" appreciation classes by focusing on figurative representation used by students. In order to do this, first of all, we conducted research into documents concerning the relationship between figurative representation and sympathy and sharing meaning, and obtained a theoretical point of view for practical analysis. Next, by analyzing the relationship between the figurative representation used by students and sympathy in "Graphic Score Making" appreciation classes, we clarified the characteristics of sharing meaning through sympathy. The research results derived the following characteristics of sharing meaning through sympathy in "Graphic Score Making" appreciation classes when focusing on figurative representation. In "Graphic Score Making" appreciation classes, since the "vehicle" of figurative representation used there expresses the quality of the life phenomenon which everyone has experienced, since it is easy to understand although it also becomes bored about the mutual relation between "tenor" and "ground" from "vehicle", sympathy takes place easily, and students can share meaning along with comprehension and actual feeling.
The purpose of this study is to develop an educational method using "expression cards" for students with developmental disabilities. In departments of music, though implementation of "interaction and joint learning" - streaming with non-special needs students - is common, research into the distinct traits related to perception and sensitivity of special needs students lags. As a result, the author felt a means to recognize the feelings students perceived internally when listening to music was necessary. As a means of accomplishing that, the author led a class using "expression cards," which gave an indication as to the feelings of the students. The class listened to Grieg's "Norwegian Dance Op. 35 No. 2." Then the students chose the card that most closely expressed their feelings. Next, the students spoke about the feelings from the card they chose. Finally, the students listened to "Norwegian Dance Op. 35 No. 2" again, and then reviewed the learning process using words. As a result, students with difficulty expressing their feelings were able to articulate what they perceived, and ultimately were able to both feel and experience in the music.