The purpose of this study is to clarify how to nurture primary school children' s motivation to become involved with other people. Based on result analysis of the above interaction, this study aims to make clear what factors elicit the child's motivation. The target of the analysis is Child B, who was selected from an elementary school study group because of the obvious change in activity of Child B. "The Exchange activity" in this paper refers to communication using Warabeuta between primary school children and kindergarteners. First, this paper outlines the situation of the kindergartern/elementary school exchange. Furthermore, the significance of using Warabeuta for the Exchange activity is made clear. Next, the intentions and outline of the Exchange activity by Warabeuta are discussed. In addition, a video recording (5 hours) and a verbatim report of Child B's activities are analyzed and reveal the change in Child B's attitude toward kindergarteners. Finally, the conditions of the change in Child B' s attitude are considered. The Conclusions are as follows. Under what conditions will Child B's motivation to be involved with other people be nurtured? 1. Warabeuta freely handled by Child B could be an intermediary for communication with other children. 2. Child B is able to sense, feel and understand what makes Warabeuta an interesting interaction tool, and realize it is a foundation of that motivation. According to the above results, some medium is required for children to become involved with other people, and to become familiar with this medium makes children confident and feel positive. Moreover, the Exchange activity is usually difficult for children to communicate with others because it involves intergenerational interaction. However, using an intermediate with a little ingenuity may facilitate communication for them.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the learning effects of the cooperative learning of traditional music of a certain region. We do this by analyzing a class in which we used 'Okage-odori' as teaching materials for the purpose of realizing the pleasure of cooperation. To achieve that, we focus on the relationship between bodily expression and musical expression. First, we reconsider the concept of 'cooperation' and 'cooperative learning', and furthermore, consider cooperative learning by using the traditional music of a certain region. Then, we analyze the class that incorporates multifaceted expressions particular to the region. From the result of our analysis, we conclude the following about the significance of the cooperative learning of traditional music of a certain region. 1) Positive Interdependence is raised and Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction becomes active by communicating with group members via both their body and music. 2) Group Processing is advanced by perceiving and sharing a beat in their group.
The objective of this study is to clarify the conditions that cause the formation of groupthink in music classes. First, we went over documentation about groupthink and sorted the stated concepts of groupthink to derive the conditions that cause the formation of groupthink. Then, we designed a class incorporating those derived conditions, implemented and analyzed the class to see whether or not groupthink had been formed, and, if so, how it had been formed. Finally, we considered the conditions that result in the formation of groupthink based on analysis. We derived the following two items as conditions for the formation of groupthink: 1. The mutual relation of an issue each individual has will form a common issue. 2. There are occasions in which each individual can express by words and/or deeds what he/she thought about the common issue, in order to pursue his/her own issue. In addition to these conditions-that form groupthink in music classes, there are the following three causal conditions: 1. Using teaching materials that can easily elicit an individual's unique and subjective cognition of music. 2. Pursuing a groupthink issue relating music, words and movements. 3. Expanding the contents of the common issue from parts of the music to related parts of the whole.
This paper proposes the development of a specific plan for instruction and practice through ESD (Education for Sustainable Development) for implementing music appreciation education in order to develop capable teachers for the 21st century. Its objectives are as follows. First is the production of "A Guide to Music Appreciation Instruction through ESD" that aligns content instruction in music appraisal with the capabilities students are expected to acquire through ESD. Moreover, a second objective is to stimulate high school students' thinking that is required to foster those capabilities. Furthermore, we hope to enhance music appreciation education through ESD in the future by formulating, putting into practice and testing a lesson plan based on this Guide. Through these proposals, it is hoped that both teachers and students will become aware that the capabilities sought in learning music appreciation can contribute to the development of a sustainable society, and that this will encourage music departments to offer music appreciation classes aimed at the acquisition of "21st century skills."
The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of the shared meaning as seen in "Music Critical Note-making" appreciation classes by focusing on the function of figurative representation used by students. Research methods are as follows: 1) Organization of previous research and documents concerning figurative representation and processes through which meaning is shared (based on John Dewey's theory of communication) in order to obtain a logical viewpoint for conducting practical analysis. 2) Analysis of processes through which musical meaning is shared through figurative representation in "Music Critical Note-making" appreciation classes. 3) Clarification of the function of figurative representation in processes through which meaning is shared based on the results of analysis. In the process of working towards the sharing of meaning, the results of this study showed, first of all, that music to be shared is predicted and specified through figurative representation and that, consequently, feelings, which are a quality of music, are being shared. Next, the study showed that, if children focus their attention on the predicted or specified part of the music, their awareness is directed not only to feelings that are aspects of substance of that part of the music, but also to aspect of form, which is a condition for engendering feelings. It can be said that, within this, onomatopoeia functions as an expression of unified sensitivity to aspect of substance and perception of aspect of form. According to the above, the characteristic of sharing of meaning is focused on the function of figurative representation in appreciation class of "Music Critical Note-making." Recall the feeling that figurative representation generated in the process occurs in the situation of the interaction between children and music. In figurative representation, onomatopoeia in particular, as an expression of unified sensitivity to aspect of substance and the perception of aspect of form, functions when the awareness of children is directed to the aspect of form of music, which is a condition for engendering feelings.