The purpose of this research was to clarify how the imagination works in music-making lessons, which focus on the end-in-view formation process for children. The method of research was to clarify the relationship between the imagination when making music and the end-in-view based upon Dewey's imagination theory and exploration theory, from which, a viewpoint of analysis for practice, was derived. Following this, the author analyzed the music-making lesson in which they practiced based upon the viewpoint which was derived.
The conclusion was that the end-in-view formation process for children in these practice cases was as follows : (1) Grasp the quality of the present situation by forming an image, (2) connect thus grasped qualities of the present situation to the similar qualities of the past situation by forming an image to find the meaning of the qualities, and (3) combine the thus found meaning with future activity and form the end-in-view. In this process, imagination worked in the formation of an image for the qualities of the present situation and in obtaining an idea of future activity by combining the present quality of the situation and experiences from the past.
The purpose of this study is to clarify problem-solving with heterogeneous influences fostering imaginative thinking ability. To do so, the study considers the relationship between heterogeneity and imaginative thinking ability in group learning of music.
First, we surveyed prior research and literature regarding the theory of music learning, and defined imaginative thinking ability. Second, we configured music classes in order to measure the relationship between heterogeneity in group learning and imaginative thinking ability. Finally, we put this into practice and analyzed the class.
It thus became clear that, in regards to problem-solving in making music, heterogeneity image, and differences in musical ideas appear. Moreover, various problems therefore became apparent. In addition, when solving problems, different images or musical ideas appeared. It turned out that imaginative thinking ability functions when linked to heterogeneity.
The purpose of this study is to clarify a perspective of lesson structure that develops communication in expressive activities using multimedia through analyzing a music lesson on “Kyo-gen”.
First, we review the literature on “expression media”, “multimedia”, “expression using multimedia”, “communication in the music lesson” and “communication device”, considering the features of communication via music, languages and movement. Furthermore, we arrive at a perspective of the lesson structure. Next, we analyze the aspects of children's communication in expressive activities using multimedia. Then, we derive hypothetical perspective of lesson structure to develop communication in expressive activities using multimedia.
From the result of our analysis, we conclude the necessity of the employing the following in lesson structure as a way of developing communication in expressive activities using multimedia.
First, it is necessary to create an environment for children to share in the aims of their expression. Next, students need to use the expression medium of teaching materials as a communication device. Third students need to visualize their images and copy other's movements. Moreover, they need to explain the sense quality through languages ; furthermore they should confirm this through music. Last, based on the above, they will devise their own expression using multimedia.
The aim of this study was to reveal the effectiveness of a mentoring program designed to improve music lessons delivered by a young music teacher so as to support students' proactive learning. The study was based on mentee speech analysis results, lesson records, and mentee utterance records - both in dialog with the mentor and in workshops. This study had four major program effectiveness findings : (1) Category analysis of 20 teacher utterances over three lessons indicated that lessons evolved from teacher-centered ones (where a cycle of instruction and evaluation is repeated) to teacher-student dialog lessons, which were composed of confirmation, encouragement of thinking, and acceptance. (2) The mentee's view of children changed through trial and error in questioning students. (3) The mentee's view of lessons and teaching changed along with the changes in her view of children. She incorporated the language of questioning rather than that of instructing as a specific, new lesson-building technique. (4) Through her reflection on the entire program in a closing interview, the mentee showed awareness of beliefs.
The roots of three changes lie in four principal mentorship program policies. In particular, by trying to provide the mentee with opportunities to gain new perspectives, the mentor encouraged the mentee to set concrete tasks, which helped the mentee's metacognitive capabilities regarding lessons. Since the program was intended for a teacher who had just completed her initial term, it can be concluded that an important function of the program was to encourage the mentee's voluntary improvement of classes.