This study aims to clarify how a shared musical score functions as a learning environment factor in creating a situation in which learners communicate images of singing expressions. After analyzing the setting in which students together devised a way of singing using “Hakone Hachiri” as a teaching material in a high school art (music) class, the following conclusions were made. First, jointly used scores are subject to ‘joint attention’. Second, the shared musical score functions as a constructive and collaborative learning tool, and as a mediator that promotes the sharing of singing expression images and memories. As a result, a situation is established in which images of singing expressions are communicated with each other.
This study clarifies the relationship between media and the problem-solving process in the context of multimedia expression.
First, we review the existing literature on “problem solving” and “expression” by Dewey and consider the relationship between the two variables. We also review the problem-solving process in multimedia expression. Second, we conducted an instrumental music lesson with multimedia expression as the teaching material and empirically analyzed how different media are related to one another in the process of expression reconstruction. Finally, we analyz the music lesson structure and consider the significance of using multimedia expression in problem-based learning, which took place in the course of the lesson.
The following results were obtained. with regard to the role of media in the problem-solving process : 1) When one outer material turns resistant, solving the problem can create new resistance in terms of another outer material. 2) As the expression reconstruction process continues, multiple media become interlocked. 3) When multiple media become interlocked, all media are integrated.
This study aims to clarify the effects of the content of each subject, etc., on the development process of physical expression in children in a cross-curriculum practicum that combines music, physical education, and athletic meets. First, this paper defines expression, relying on Dewey's theory of expression. Next, the paper derives a perspective for cross-curriculum class composition combining music, physical education, and athletic meets. This focuses on expression, develops a concept of research practice, and puts it into practice. Then the results of the analysis were interpreted to learn the effects of the content of each subject, etc., on the development process of physical expression in the sampled children.
The paper concludes that what the sample children perceived/sensed in the music class affected their formation of mental images of what they wanted to express. In physical education, efforts were made to improve body movements based on the mental images of what they wanted to express. Moreover, the segmentation of their mental images was affected. Furthermore, modifying body movements based on the segmented mental images worked to promote perception/sensation of various musical elements. At athletic meets, awareness of others encouraged efforts at expression using the whole body with a consciousness of various elements of music. This resulted in creating dynamic physical expressions.
The purpose of this study is to examine how a practical model, which integrates the pastness, or historical context, as described in the teaching guides for the courses of study, with the presentness, or the perspective of empirically grasping the “meaning and role of music” in everyday “places” can be a pragmatic appreciation practice to consider the “Meaning and Role of Music in Life and Society” in the music department of junior high schools.
The author first relies on Tia DeNora, a British sociologist, to show the necessity of a perspective that empirically grasps the “meaning and role of music” in everyday “places” in this study.
Next, the author presents a practical model based on DeNora's theory, examines it, and then clarifies how this practice can provide a pragmatic perspective compared to the teaching methods given in the teaching guides for the courses of study.
The results reveal the following.
The appreciation practice of empirically grasping the “eaning and role of music” in everyday “places” and considering the “Meaning and Role of Music in Life and Society” has prepared a view that can lead to music education with a pragmatic perspective by understanding the actual music culture today and acquiring a sociocultural perspective. In addition, because this practice itself is connected to music education with a pragmatic perspective, it is stronger and more expansive than teaching methods that focus on historical contexts and consider the “meaning and role of music” Moreover, it leads toward music education with a pragmatic perspective.
The purpose of this study is to elucidate how the practice of “the Sound System / Voices of Things” - a project activity employing the Reggio Emilia Approach with the main focus on expressions used by children aged 4-5 - is structured. This paper first looks into how the project activity, “the Sound System / Voices of Things,” is positioned within the Reggio Emilia Approach. Then, it interprets the practice through the viewpoint of “interaction between children and materials.” Finally, the paper comes to a conclusion about how the project activity is structured, considering its characteristics and challenges.
The fundamental philosophy of the Reggio Emilia Approach is that sensory experiences obtained through interactions with materials form the basis for children's multisensory development. The practice of “the Sound System / Voices of Things” project, which is the means to realize this philosophy, employs strings as the material. The “sensory exploration” through interactions with string sounds was incorporated into the “constructive activity” of making an instrument featuring strings as the material. In observing the development, the study considered the “strings” to form the core of the project structure. At the same time, in seeing the project structure from the aspect of expressive activities centering on children's inner image as the core, it notes the lack of viewpoint. This enables the continuance of the image formed within the children's minds as a challenge. The paper suggests that the continuation in children's experience, both in materials and images, forms the key to the development of expressive project activities.
The purpose of this study is to examine the transformation of students' “enjoyment” of music-related activities through the introduction of music preference into an instrumental lesson in an elementary school music class. To do this, first a review of the literature on the phrase “music preference” was conducted. Next, the literature on “enjoyment” in music education was isolated, and the word was defined as it is used in this study while incorporating the viewpoint of “flow.” Then, an instrumental lesson was planned that explored the relationship between “music preference” and “enjoyment” in an elementary school class. Last, whether or not the students' “enjoyment” continued throughout all the music lessons, based on the students' interest level, was considered.
The following conclusions were reached regarding the transformation of “enjoyment” caused by introducing “music preference” in an instrumental lesson : 1) First, the “enjoyment of skill improvement” was observed in the process of acquiring skills : the educational materials motivated the students, so they concentrated during repeated practice. 2) Next, the “enjoyment of understanding” was seen through direct interaction with the song by perceiving and feeling the various musical elements and the images the music created with others through conversation and action. 3) Last, the “enjoyment of becoming one with the song” was experienced as students improved the expression and styles of performance with classmates and shared physical movements, which produced “groove.” Playing the song was difficult for students, but motivated by “music preference,” the “enjoyment” continued to the end of the lesson.