The purpose of this study is to clarify the functions of physical activities in the process of evolution to “expression” in an instrumental music lesson focusing on the transformation from “material” to “media”.
First, we reviewed the literature on “expression” by Dewey, and considered the process of evolution to “expression” on the instrumental music lesson focusing on the transformation from “material” to“media. Next, we inspected the functions of physical activities in this process by analyzing lessons with physical activities. Last, we considered the significance of incorporating physical activities into instrumental music lessons.
From our analysis, the following results were obtained. The developmental process is as follows. 1) The phase in which children deal with tone as a “material” and play the instruments without intention. 2) The phase in which children interact with tone or music and have ideas, images, and emotions. 3) The phase in which children deal with tone as “media” and devise the way of playing the instruments with intention based on their ideas, images, and emotions. The functions of physical activities that is exercised in each phase is as follows. In the first phase, 1) Physical activities enhance the children's interest in the music as teaching materials. 2) Physical activities make children feel the sense quality that is given by the musical elements. 3) Physical activities make children improve their understanding about musical elements with actual feeling and enhance the children's motivation to play the instruments. In the second phase, 4) Physical activities exaggerate the sense quality that children feel through the interaction with musical materials, and promote this interaction.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the function of reflection as observed in musical thinking in a music appreciation classes.
The research method used was the practical method. First, I sorted and chose the key words of this research : “musical thinking” and “reflection.” The position of this paper is to study children through self-directed interactions on which they act and are acted upon by their environment within the context of learning activities. Thus, I have collated findings from previous studies and literature with similar positions. The concept of reflection is based on J. Dewey's theory of education. Then, I envisaged and implemented a music appreciation class that allowed children to employ musical thinking and engage in reflection. Finally, I analyzed the lesson record from the perspective of how reflection was performed and how it functioned.
To conclude, the functions of reflection that are seen in musical thinking in music appreciation classes are summarized below :
(1) By engaging in reflection, the subject has a new viewpoint for listening to music based on the problem that has been set.
(2) By engaging in reflection, the subject perceives new elements of music that have not been perceived before.
(3) By engaging in reflection, the subject feels new characteristics of music and gains a new impression of it, perhaps break down the impressions that they already have.
(4) By engaging in reflection, the subject recognizes the connection between perception and sensation.
Focusing on Dewey's experience concept, the purpose of this study is to clarify how the activeness of young children is observed in their expression activities based on Warabeuta play.
First, the method of viewing activeness in Dewey's experience concept was summarized, and the method of viewing activeness in the present study was defined. Next, based on the experiences of young children playing using the entire body, we hypothesized that young children can demonstrate their activeness when attempting to recreate Warabeuta play. Moreover, we implemented expression activities that recreate Warabeuta play and analyzed the expression activities of young children, paying attention to the relations between the behavioral actions and needs.
In conclusion, young children's activeness occurs as follows.
Young children's activeness in expression activities based on Warabeuta play is caused by impulsive needs. Impulsive needs trigger behavioral actions as observations and imitations. When young children can understand their situation by observation or imitation, they will act as an active participant. In this process, the key to the update of the activeness is to grasp the situation.
The purpose of this research is to clarify the effective perspectives of lesson structure for singing expressions in foreign languages based on perception and feeling of characteristics of words in high school music classes. The aim of the classes is to ascertain the relationship between words and music, based on perception and feeling of the characteristics of words, so as to match the image students want to express while taking advantage of the characteristics of words, and to learn singing expression in foreign languages in a proactive and interactive manner.
First, the lessons were planned with two points of view vis-à-vis the lesson structure considered to be effective. The two points of view vis-à-vis the lesson structure were : (1) Use foreign language singing teaching materials with the title “Let's sing in various languages” during the introduction stage, (2) Use the original language notation for the lyrics without katakana notation. Second, practical classes were carried out based on the above points of view. Finally, the effectiveness of the two perspectives of lesson structure were analyzed and verified. The practical classes consisted of two stages : introduction and development, applying the unit construction based on the concept of the generating of music. During the introduction stage, the German language “Let's sing in various languages” was used as the singing material. During the development stage, the German song “Heidenröslein” composed by Schubert was used as the singing material.
As a result of the analysis and verification of practical classes, the effectiveness of two perspectives of the lesson structure was proven. Moreover, it was clarified that these two perspectives contributed to the effective perspectives for the classes of singing expression in a foreign language that this research aimed for.