Twenty six patients with bilateral enlargement of the submandibular glands were evaluated with respect to clinical and histological features. The clinical diagnosis was Kütner's tumor in 4 patients, sialodochitis fibrinosa in 2, sialadenosis in 14, malignant lymphoma in 3, amyloidosis in 2 and sialolithiasis in 1. Three patients are described in detail, 1 with sialadenosis, 1 with malignant lymphoma and 1 with amyloidosis. In case 1 sialadenosis was associated with anorexia nervosa. Histological examination of the salivary glands showed pale and swollen acinar cells. In case 2 (malignant lymphoma) the submandibular glands were characterized by firm swelling resembling Kuttner's tumor. They were replaced by infiltrating lymphocytes which were immunoreactive for pan T. The blood serum test was positive for HTLV-I. The firm swellings in case 3 were due to amyloidosis. Biopsy showed thick amorphous materials stained with Congo-red located around the blood vessels.