In 2015, it was estimated that 2.4 billion people globally still use unimproved sanitation facilities, among which 40% live in Southern Asia (WHO 2015). Ecological sanitation could be the best alternative to solve the problem of sanitation and to improve livelihood. The study was conducted in one of the Village Development Committee (VDC) of Bhaktapur district where ecosan toilet was constructed for the households with the financial and technical help from Environment and Public Health Organization (ENPHO). The present study investigated ecosan users’ and non-users’ attitudes towards ecosan toilet through questionnaire survey. Fifteen ecosan users and 15 non-users were interviewed. Five ecosan users were selected from abovementioned 15 users for microbial contamination. Fecal contamination on hands, shoes back, soil sample and ecosan manure sample was measured by monitoring Echerichia coli as a fecal indicator bacteria. The results from the questionnaire survey suggested that all ecosan user farmers agreed with the positive effects of ecosan manure in terms of fertilizer use and have not mentioned any problems on use of ecosan toilet. Although majority of the non-ecosan users are aware of the benefits of ecosan toilet but only few are willing to install ecosan toilet due to its drawbacks such as need of ash, user unfriendly and unsuitability for large size family (> 5 family members). Need of proper management of ecosan toilet and awareness campaign on self-hygiene was found to be necessary to promote effective use of ecosan toilet. The E. coli tests suggested that only ecosan manure is not the source for fecal transmission. However urine and ecosan manure from ecosan toilet might get contaminated by fecal microorganisms through other sources. Proper attention is necessary to reduce such contamination which is generally neglected by the users.
Millions of people in developing countries are still using open spaces for defecation. Such practice often leads to the spread of infectious diseases and risk of death. Despite much effort to change this unsanitary practice by governments and international agencies, challenges remain in many parts of the developing world today. Although there is no one model for latrine development that fits all, lessons from successful cases can be learned by countries currently striving to increase latrine coverage. This study focuses on how a developing country such as Thailand has come to succeed in latrine development. The analysis is based on documentary data supplemented with interviews of purposively selected key informants. Results of the analysis reveal that the success of latrine development in Thailand is facilitated by a number of key factors including: (1) Strong policies through which resources, man power and materials needed for latrine development can be provided; (2) Integration of latrine development into the overall health and sanitation development process, which makes the campaign meaningful among the target people; (3) Appropriate approach and strategies for implementing the project; (4) Adequate health facilities needed for effective execution of latrine development; and (5) The people’s willingness to participate as a result of changing knowledge and attitude about the health benefits of using latrines. With the goal of universal latrine coverage achieved, Thailand is now moving forward to improve latrine quality in all sectors and the proper management of fecal sludge. Based on Thailand’s experience some recommendations are provided for countries currently striving to achieve universal latrine coverage.
The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund’s strategy for WASH 2016 to 2030 indicated water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) as central to the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) because of its implications for nutrition, health, education, poverty and economic growth, urban services, gender equality, resilience and climate change. At the SDGs initiation, the United Nations pledged to ‘leave no one behind’, with special consideration to the least developed countries in sub-Saharan Africa who had performed poorly in accomplishing the just ended Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). It is in this regard that this paper highlights the past and current status, performance and policies of three sub-Saharan countries; Malawi, Tanzania and Zambia in reference to WASH. These countries were selected due to their similarities in a bid to uncover trends, best practices, and means for improvement of WASH towards the attainment of SDG 6: universal, sustainable, and equitable access to WASH, and an end to open defecation by 2030. Only Malawi attained its target for citizen access to safe drinking water at MDG level, whilst all three countries failed to meet targets for sanitation and hygiene. Causes for success and failure in the improvement of WASH across the three countries were linked to the implementation and sustainability of WASH policies and programs. These findings highlight the importance for full stakeholder engagement from the government to the individual in all sections of WASH. It also recommends the engagement to take part in all WASH sectors, from construction to maintenance, for the overall creation of workable WASH structures and frameworks.