The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological trait of Japanese national synchronized swimmers at different levels of performance. We analyzed the scales of psychological competitive ability for synchronized swimmers of national A team (22.3 ± 2.2 yrs, n = 12), national B team (18.0 ± 2.2 yrs, n = 8), junior national team (15.8 ± 0.4 yrs, n = 8) and junior elite team (12.7 ± 0.7 yrs, n = 14), by using the Diagnostic Inventory Psychological Competitive Ability test (DIPCA.3.). Results revealed that synchronized swimmers were significantly high in cooperation, patience and volition for self-realization, and significantly low in their ability to relax, self-confidence and decision-making ability as compared to Olympic female athletes. It is suggested that the psychological competitive ability of synchronized swimmers were reflected by specific factors of synchronized swimming, which is judged as a closed-skill, synchronized sport and a large repetitive drill. Although world class synchronized swimmers had a low ability to relax, it is suggested they can perform better under high pressure and tension. The national A team was higher in patience and aggressiveness than the lower level groups. Therefore, patience and aggressiveness are important abilities that are required to be a world top-level athlete. In addition, younger swimmers need to gain experience by participating in international competitions and national team training camps at a young age in order to improve their psychological competitive ability.
The purpose of this study were to determine the endurance performances for swimming in whole crawl strokes (Swim), arm strokes (Pull) and leg kicks (Kick) using critical swimming velocity (CV), and to compare these parameters between water polo players (skilled and unskilled) and competitive swimmers (short and long distance). The results showed strong and significant linear relationships between swimming distance and the time in all subjects. Calculated CV of Swim, Pull and Kick were lower in the water polo players than in the competitive swimmers. Also, the relationships between the CV of Pull or Kick and Swim were different between the water polo players and the competitive swimmers. These results demonstrated that, as well as for Swim, CV can also be used to determine the endurance performances for Pull and Kick. However, the relationships between the endurance performances for Pull, Kick and Swim were indicated to be different between water polo players and competitive swimmers.
The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of the varied starting block angle for the start performance in competitive swimming. Ten well-trained college swimmers participated in this study. They performed twice at each 4 types of swim-start trials which were GS (grab start) with 7.5 and 10 degrees of block angle, TS (track start) with 7.5 and 10 degrees. The trials were recorded by high-speed camera (125Hz). Joint motions were calculated by using 2D-DLT methods. Comparisons of kinematical variables were performed by using the two-way repeated-measures analysis (block angle and start technique) of variance. Significant main effect of the block angle were observed in the horizontal and resultant take-off velocity (7.5deg < 10deg) and the entry angle (7.5deg > 10deg). Significant main effects of the start technique were observed block time (GS > TS), coordinates of center of gravity at the takeoff (horizontal GS > TS, vertical GS < TS), the body angle (GS < TS) and the entry angle (GS > TS). Significant interaction were not observed in each variable. These results suggested that an increase of the block angle and using of track start resulted in an advantage for start performance until water entry.
The purpose of this study was to investigate blood pressure and muscle oxygen dynamics in a rest cold water immersion by using 9 healthy men. The water temperature that we used was 20°C, 25°C, and 30°C in the 15-min-water-immersion tests on sitting posture. As a result, the systolic arterial pressure immediately after immersion was higher than rest value with all conditions. However, only 30°C condition reached a low value after five minutes of the immersion. The diastolic pressure increased by the immersion in 20°C and 25°C condition. On the other hand, diastolic pressure decreased in 30°C condition. Total hemoglobin and deoxy-hemoglobin decreased at the water immersion compared with rest value. In all condition, oxy- hemoglobin was decreased immediately after immersion compared with rest value. There was great difference between 30°C and, 25°C and 20°C, for blood pressure and muscle O2 dynamics. In the conclusion, when the water temperature was 30°C, the cold pressor response was not seen and it was thought that the decreased blood pressure is caused by hydraulic pressure.