In this study, the impact of having in-house patent attorneys on organizational outcomes was examined by using patent data on a battery of Japanese companies. Since the “internalization of qualified patent attorneys” is occurring due to the policy context, companies' impact is examined using the case of in-house patent attorneys. In-house patent attorneys can serve as a hub of knowledge, facilitating the combination of expertise in a company and further embodying the combined knowledge in the form of patent rights. Concerning patent applications filed by in-house patent attorneys, I hypothesized that an increase in in-house representation would increase the number of patent applications filed. This study tested the hypothesis that an increase in in-house patent attorneys’ representation of patent applications would increase the number of patent applications filed by companies. As a result, this hypothesis was not proven. In-house patent attorneys in an organization may contribute by their abilities other than patent applications, such as promoting knowledge combination.
Empirical research on the negative impacts of open innovation has traditionally focused on the view of transaction cost which suggested that complicated open R&D structure may lead to excessive management and information processing cost. This paper takes a different approach to this issue, focusing on outgoing knowledge transfer in open innovation that may adversely affect the focal firm’s performance and competitive advantage. To measure outgoing knowledge transfer, I use employees’ voluntary turnover for that tacit knowledge is always embedded in human-being. I theorize that employees’ turnover decisions are affected by the interaction of underutilized knowledge within firms, and enhanced individual absorptive capacity and social capital enhanced by open R&D. I take a quantitative methodology to test this theory, using 728 firms’ data based on the Survey of Research and Development held by the Statistics Bureau of Japan annually. As a result, I find that open R&D positively affects employees’ turnover, which suggests firms face a dilemma when they decide to adopt open innovation. It is that firms can build a competitive advantage through incoming knowledge from external organizations, however, they can also lose their advantages due to the outgoing knowledge transfer held by their employees.
Cross-organizational efforts are important for modern corporate organizations to respond quickly and appropriately to the discontinuously changing external environment. Management accounting can be understood as a function responsible for controlling the organization, but in such discussions, the role of indirect departments such as management accounting and the organizational behavior of the members required there have not always been clarified. This study investigated the job characteristics of management accounting work in domestic companies. In addition, it was found that the active execution of work by job crafting of management accounting workers enhances the evaluation of superiors and the contribution to their own department and the entire company. This suggests that the active implementation of management accountants may detect changes in the external environment, promote cooperation between top management and the field, and encourage cross-organizational efforts.
We called into question the validity of disengaged silence labeled by a precedent research which classified silence into six types based on silence motives. Unlike other five silences, disengaged silence seemed to be inconsistent with its label which generally represents a person’s state, not motive. As such, we tried to rebuild disengaged silence using a two-axis approach namely disengagement and silence, which were also considered as state and behavioral disengagements respectively by a precedent engagement research. Using data obtained by our web-based research, we determined respondents who exceeded average scores of both disengagement and silence as a disengaged silence group. Finally, as a result of our analysis, improvability of disengaged silence was confirmed and the most effective scheme for disengaged silence were found by conjoint analysis using conjoint cards laid out schemes should be matched with workers’ desires from their career anchors. Potable benefit program was selected as the most-preferred scheme of the disengaged silence group and this might indicate that Japanese traditional human resources system such as a lifetime employment system causes disengaged silence.
The purpose of this study is to research the relevance between work engagement of front-line employees in hospitality industry and work-related other factors from case examples of approaches by a Japanese-style hotel and to make use of it for human resource management of hospitality businesses such as accommodation/food service industries. For this purpose, in this study, the possibility of work engagement getting involved in behavior changes of employees by "approaches to enhance job satisfaction" is examined in an exploratory manner from case examples of a Japanese-style hotel. The results of the case analysis are as follows. It is suggested that the improvement of organizational culture has revitalized the workplace, motivated employees, started to actively engage in organizational reform, and led to a decrease in turnover rate and improvement in profitability. Considering the use of effective management boosted work engagement as a driver and as a result, led to active participation in the organization and good service, I showed the relationship in the form of hypothetic model. The findings of this study can be utilized as a priority issue for the human resources strategy and hospitality business of front-line employees, and can contribute to effective management practice.
Internet service companies, like manufacturing companies, need to manage to gain a competitive advantage through value creation through innovation. However, due to the development of ICT technology, competition has become fierce, making value creation even more difficult. On the other hand, since the development of ICT technology connects people and things, visualizing them will promote interaction within the network and create emergent value. Therefore, building user networks ahead of other companies will be a source of competitive advantage. In this study, we present a new conceptual framework for product development management to achieve sustainable competitive advantage in the Internet service industry. To do so, we set a research question: What kind of product development management can be a source of sustainable competitive advantage for firms in a highly homogeneous and competitive market such as Internet services? The research question was: What kind of product development management can be a source of sustainable competitive advantage for a company in a highly homogeneous market like Internet services? In order to derive a hypothesis for this question, we conducted a case study of Tencent.
According to the prior research, diversity is one of important actions to accelerate innovation, because various perspectives based on various personality is a source of creating brand-new business. However, some researchers pointed that the effects of diversity don’t include only positive aspects, but they have also negative ones such as inefficiency or conflicts. Thus, there are some trade-off relationships between economic efficiency and effectiveness come from diversity. In this paper, we discuss a diversity is not charity issue but strategic management of business. And we argue a possibility that diversity action to accelerate innovation on the opposite order of the prior point view. To show the returning process, we have compared dating apps for gay people and have found that the state of dividing between gay community and the others as well as accelerating diversity. To discuss these, we made case studies of some social media sites and apps exclusively for gay people and Tinder, a dating app for smartphone, to create community for people including gender minorities. In reaching our conclusion that Tinder provides safer communications with a psychological safety for all gender users as it isn’t gay exclusive app which divides the communities.
The purpose of this study is to examine the dynamics of competition among ecosystems in markets where network effects work, especially the indirect network effects of work. This study focuses on a different point of view than that of the installed base, which consists of the total number of complementary products, services, and end users in the ecosystem. Specifically, this study deliberates the research question of what entry and competitive strategies latecomer ecosystems can take in the market where there is a first-mover ecosystem that reaches the “winner-takes-all” position, from the standpoint of “quality” of ecosystems, through the comparative case analysis between ecosystems in the online cooking recipe service market. In conclusion, this study has derived a mechanism in which a latecomer ecosystem, as a result of redefining value proposition in cooking recipe services, successfully entered into the market. This could be done by placing importance on such viewpoints such as not the number of recipes but the comprehensibility and findability of recipe videos, and letting them be controlled by a platform itself as a core company of the ecosystem without leaving the recipes to complementors.
This research analyzes three cases of management innovation (MI) generated and implemented in the production sites of Japanese and German automobile parts makers. MI is a new type of organization innovation explained as the introduction of new management practice, process, and structures to achieve higher organization goals. This is described as a five-step-process starting from dissatisfaction of the status quo to the diffusion to the other organizations. While it is expected that MNEs’ foreign subsidiaries should generate MI for their advancement, few studies analyze subsidiary-level MI; how and why subsidiaries generate and implement MI and how and by whom they are validated in the MNE still remain unclear. This research shows two findings through the comparative case analysis of subsidiary-level MI. First, unlike the MI process made by Birkinshaw and Mol (2006), the process of subsidiary-level MI from invention to internal validation is not sequential but interactive, so that the stage of invention and that of validation move together. Second, subsidiary-level MI should be described as a rational process reflecting subsidiary’s strategy. These findings differentiate subsidiary-level MI from firm-level MI and from intra-organizational knowledge transfer from the headquarter to subsidiaries.
In the world economy, the proportion of the service sector is gradually increasing, and the population of workers in the service sector is also increasing accordingly. In organizational studies, there are issues peculiar to the organization and the personnel that provides the services. In this study, the author examined how service personnel’s positive and negative emotions influence job performance and job satisfaction. The author surveyed flight attendants working for Asian airlines (Study 1) and European airlines (Study 2) and compared service personnel’s emotions because of cross-cultural differences. “Affective delivery,” which incorporates positive emotional expressions in service, was used as a positive emotional variable of service personnel in this study. Conversely, “emotional exhaustion” caused by physical and mental fatigue was considered a negative emotional aspect and a negative emotional variable. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis first measured the variables used in this study, and then the direct and mediator effects between the variables were verified by path analysis by covariance-based structural equation modeling (SEM). This study shows that service personnel who practice positive emotional expression in response to customer service improve job performance, even if they perceive role ambiguity in different organizational cultures. In contrast, perceiving role ambiguity generally makes service personnel feel stressed and emotionally exhausted, and job performance declines for European airlines. Understanding and utilizing such mechanisms may help prevent service personnel from feeling stressed and emotional fatigue in the workplace.
The extant literature on technology transfer in capital-intensive industries suggests that since technical knowledge is already embodied in manufacturing equipment, developing countries that import equipment can produce products efficiently with economies of scale. However, for high-grade steel production, steel makers in emerging countries equipped with large-scale capital investment and state-of-the-art equipment capital investment continued to struggle. This paper insists that economic backwardness is limited for two reasons, technological and organizational, in the steel industry. First, the inter-process coordination is crucial to manufacture high-grade steel products such as automotive steel sheets. Second, since companies that introduce technologies lack knowledge and experience regarding new technologies, their learning process is variable. This paper explains how companies learn their new technologies in the process of introduction, assess their possible biases, and determine the time required for learning and relearning. From the standpoint of the introducing company, this paper defines ‘technology recognition,’ ‘recognition lag,’ and ‘learning lag.’
During 2010’s, hotel groups in Japan have grown as Japanese customers’ demand has shifted from traditional Japanese inns, Ryokan to the Western style accommodation, hotels. In addition, the number of inbound tourists from overseas, mainly Asian countries, has rapidly increased. Recently, hotel groups and chains have developed across counties and extended internationally through strategic alliances (none-quity-based mode) rather than full ownership (equity-based mode), because of small financial investment, low managerial risks and fast partnership expansion. However, in Japan, major hotel groups have grown through full ownership rather than strategic alliance. From the viewpoint of multi-unit management, in order to correspond for rapid growth of customer demands in the short term, Japanese hotel groups preferred direct control of their subsidiaries and local partners with standard service package, service quality improvement and direct investments rather than indirect control with strategic alliance. This paper aims to examine the effect of direct control and knowledge transfer approach for rapid expansion and coordination of multi-unit organization in hotel industry, using 2019 data of ownership and contract in Japanese hotel groups.
The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of the investors on the survival of the startup. We focus on VCs (including CVCs) and incumbent companies as investment entities in startups and examine whether investment by VCs and incumbent companies would change the viability of startups, and in particular, how institutional logics’ conflicts between VCs and incumbent companies would affect the viability when investing at the same time. Quantitative analysis was conducted using the sample of 4,180 startups established in Japan from 2000 to 2010. We found the investment of VCs and incumbent companies promoted the dissolution and disappearance of startups, but the effects were different. We also found the conflicts occurred due to multiple institutional logics, namely the viability became higher when VCs and incumbent companies invested together, compared to the case where only VCs invested.
Although it is considered that two heads are better than one, related studies argued that groups rarely outperform their best members. This study not only examined whether two heads are better than one but also three heads in the context of two-armed bandit problems where learning plays an instrumental role in achieving high performance. This research revealed that a U-shaped correlation exists between performance and group size. The performance was highest for either individuals or triads, but the lowest for dyads. Moreover, this study estimated learning properties and determined that high inverse temperature (exploitation) accounted for high performance. In particular, it was shown that group effects regarding the inverse temperatures in dyads did not generate higher values to surpass the averages of their two group members. In contrast, triads gave rise to higher values of the inverse temperatures than their averages of their individual group members. These results were consistent with our proposed hypothesis that the coherence of learning strategies is likely to emerge in individuals and triads, but not in dyads, which in turn leads to higher performance. This hypothesis is based on the classical argument by Simmel stating that while dyads are likely to involve more emotion and generate greater variability, triads are the smallest structure which tends to constrain emotions, reduce individuality, and generate behavioral convergences or uniformity because of the “two against one” social pressures. As a result, three heads or one head were better than two in our study.
This study systematically and empirically demonstrates the relationship between materiality and identity in organizations. To this end, it examines a case study of Ujiden Chemical Industry Co., Ltd., which has built a sustainable competitive advantage domestically in the field of abrasives for daily-use metal products. The variety of products pertaining to synthetic abrasives distinguished the company as a comprehensive manufacturer of abrasives. Additionally, the company’s polishing technology and equipment retained as artifacts have made it symbolic as a “bastion of polishing.” Moreover, the company’s practices in consultative and proposal-based selling have given it a performance repertoire whereby it maintains a sustainable competitive advantage in the domestic market. Through this mechanism, the materiality of its products, artifacts, and practices has led to its identity as “a diversified manufacturer for polishing materials and equipment,” “a producer of abrasives and polishing machines,” and “wanting to be a manufacturer needed across various fields based on the production technology related to polishing.”
The objective of this study is to organize the previous studies of professional service firms (hereafter referred to as PSFs) using a bibliometric approach. In the study of PSFs, the target of analysis is the organization, not the professional individual, nor the institution. In recent years, research on PSFs has progressed, however, compared to analysis at the individual and institutional levels, research at the organization level has developed relatively late. This study aims to reveal the entire landscape of research on PSFs that has been accumulated so far. Bibliometric review and content analysis are applied to close to 500 articles identified by Web of Science. The result revealed that the context in which PSFs are discussed is strongly influenced by frameworks such as management and performance, which are common in the analysis of private companies.
After criticizing the research on new institutional theory for being biased toward the cognitive aspects of institutions, this study submits the following research questions. What roles do values play when individuals cope with institutional complexity? By focusing on values, we can not only capture a more complex picture of the individual, but we can also reveal the interaction between normative institutions and the individual. To address this research question, this study used a systematic review approach to summarize previous studies that focus on how individuals cope with institutional complexity. In this short paper, we report on our detailed research procedures and expected results.
The present study examined the relationships among three attributes of the plan and their effects on performance. Investigated attributes are planned engagement time to pursue high performance(T), detailedness of the plan(D), and rapidity of plan-making(R). One hundred sixty undergraduate participants responded to the online questionnaire. Q1 : "How many hours do you plan to study in preparation for the term exam of Decision Making?" Q2: "Describe your study plan." Detailedness was measured by the number of characters of the written plan. The performance was measured by the score of the subject. Rapidness was measured by the rank order of the submission time. Structural equation modeling (SEM) revealed a positive correlation between T and D (r = .189, p=.027). R was not significantly correlated either T or D. SEM also revealed that D and R significantly acted on performance (D's path coefficient=.175, p=.024; R's path coefficient=-.178, p=.02). H was not significantly acted on performance. The model fit statistics indicated GFI=.944, AGFI=.906, and RMSEA=.114.
The purpose of this paper is to consider how nursing-care workers interact with users to create value for nursing-care services in terms of trust dynamics. Improving the quality of their services provided by nursing-care workers to users is a management issue. Service management notes that the value of the services improves through the interaction between service providers and users. If this discussion is emphasized, it will be important for nursing-care services to involve users in the service implementation processes. In this study, I used videos to observe how nursing-care workers who provide services to users who live in nursing care facility. There are six cases. In these cases, I qualitatively compared and analyzed how nursing-care workers with abundant care experiences and not abundant to users. I analyzed the behaviors, conversations and facial expressions of nursing-care workers and users. Nursing-care workers with abundant care experiences had little support for users, but they were willing to move on their own. This can be as a result of building trust. On the other hand, nursing-care workers who had little experience in nursing-care were excessively involved with their users, and the users were exhausted. This type of involvement may not create service value.
A pharmacist’s job is currently changing due to the addition of new tasks precipitated by the regional comprehensive care system and the revision of the Act on Securing Quality, Efficacy and Safety of Products Including Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices. In 2016, with the revision of the medical fee, the “family pharmacist system” was established, enabling pharmacists to calculate a “family pharmacist guidance fee.” In addition, there have been continuous efforts to enhance the interpersonal services provided by pharmacists. With the increasing emphasis on interpersonal services, it is imperative to accurately assess pharmacists’ perceptions from a human resource management perspective. Therefore, this study conducted a questionnaire survey and an interview to clarify pharmacists’ perceptions of the family pharmacist system and contribute to the management of the profession. Factor analysis and interviews revealed that a four-factor structure was appropriate comprised of “ability and confidence” (F1), “job satisfaction” (F2), “professionalism” (F3), and “burden” (F4). These results may have implications for the facilitation of the family pharmacist system.
This paper argues the relationship between product adaptation and sustaining tradition of the cultural product. Especially this study pays attention to sake and wine industry, and how each industry globalizes into other countries in terms of product adaptation. This study reveals that the more they adapt to local context, the less they globalize their products. Product adaptation causes alteration of tradition and less attraction of the original cultural product. In a case of wine industry in a Japanese market, local company change a cultural product and mother country does not change it so that it’s easier to sustain tradition. On the other hand, in a case of sake industry, sake maker strives to adapt their product into local context so that it’s difficult to keep tradition and make it difficult to extent further exports because of less attraction of its cultural product.
Despite all the attention the new IT has received when it first emerged, it has not been necessary introduced to companies. On the other hand, there is IT that is being introduced to companies and being widely disseminate. Based on a review of previous studies, it can be understood that various players are involved in the disseminate process. In this paper, I propose an analysis framework consisting of interactions between IT users and IT providers as a method for analyzing the IT disseminate process.
This study focused on how the platform owners' goods development capacity and distinctiveness of platform positioning influence the evolution of platform ecosystems depending on the situation of actors' participation (i.e., single-homing or multi-homing). To test this, I designed agent-based simulation system tuned by dataset of Japanese video game market. As the results, I observed that the platform owners' goods development capacity could largely contribute to the evolution of the ecosystem at single-homing situations, but slightly at multi-homing situations. I also observed that the distinctiveness of platform positioning could contribute to the ecosystem evolution at certain degree of distinctiveness under the direction focusing popular genres, but not niche genres; especially, this tendency became remarkable at multi-homing situations.
This study formulated the question, “what knowledge do entrepreneurs think they need?” and examined not only concrete knowledge about markets and technologies but also abstract knowledge such as schemas as learning tasks for entrepreneurs. Then, focusing on knowledge, we quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed 96 interviews of Japanese entrepreneurs published in newspaper articles. As a result, along with the knowledge about opportunities and capabilities often discussed in previous studies, we identified a third category and classified it into two categories: attitudes and principles. The former refers to the attitude or mindset that entrepreneurs consider desirable when managing their business, and such ideals are thought to raise the awareness of entrepreneurs. The latter refers to the hypothesis that entrepreneurs have about the causal relationship between X and Y. This hypothesis is thought to underpin the behavior of entrepreneurs who should make decisions in highly uncertain situations. This study suggests that the images and phrases contained in such acquired knowledge may be a source of emotional energy, disciplining and encouraging entrepreneurs.
The use of EVs is accelerating around the world because CO2 emissions are zero while driving. However, considering the life cycle, the “inconvenient truth” that the decarbonization effect of EV is limited emerges. In addition to analyzing the organizational behavior of companies toward this “inconvenient truth,” the “inconvenient truth” were examined and considered new issues. The CO2 emissions seen from the life cycle of the automobile were estimated from the standpoint of a third party using published data. As a result, it was verified that “the decarbonization effect of EV is limited.” The most important issue is that “EVs need to significantly reduce CO2 during storage battery manufacturing.” For that purpose, it is necessary to improve the manufacturing process, materials, and structure of Lithium-Ion Battery (LIB). In addition, “promoting renewable energy” is an essential condition for decarbonization in all industries and products. In order to achieve decarbonization, it is essential to face the “inconvenient truth” and challenge and overcome it.
This study explored the influences of electronic communication tool (e-sticky-note) on creative process and performance. The results showed that participants' self-evaluation of the team process was lower for almost all items in the e-sticky-note session than in the paper-sticky-note session. The reason for this was the heavy load placed on the participants due to their unfamiliarity with the operation and the lack of functionality of the equipment. However, the objective amount of communication and the creative performance assessed by third party were not at different levels between the e- and paper- sticky-note, but rather differed greatly by group. The finding that self-evaluation of process did not always relate with objective activities and outcomes suggests the importance of using not only the self-evaluation of the parties involved, but also the evaluation of process and outcomes by objective measurement when introducing new electronic communication tools.
In the prior literatures, a dominant design defined as a result of continuous innovation makes matured market and commoditization of the product business. To prevent maturity, manufacturers have to make discontinuous innovation which is occasionally lose their incumbent advantages. Thus, the incumbents must not go carelessly closer to discontinuous and disrupt innovation because it might allow newcomers enter into the market easily. We argue the incumbents’ failure process which their overreacted R&D makes discontinuous innovation lead the newcomers’ advantage. To show the process, we discuss case studies of TOTO and LIXIL, 2 major incumbent manufacturers in toilet industry developed new integrated toilet products and Panasonic entering to the market as a newcomer. Such a radical R&D by incumbents was a reasonable strategy for competition with mutual enemies. However, when the discontinuous R&D might lose barriers to entry against newcomers, a newcomer can get a chance to invade the impregnable market.
In this study, corporate corruptions cases were collected and classified into 17 categories, and we found that the status of submission of third-party reports was focused on specific types of corruption. These specific corruptions have two characteristics: “organizational” and “low clarity of norm deviation conditions.” Thus, they may not be related to a particular person’s ethics or motives, and they are likely to become normal and continue if there is a structural equivalence network. When corruption occurs, the motive could be an issue, but the person involved may be doing it without any special motive. Although there are cases in which organizational wrongdoings focusing on organizational networks are proposed, the discussion is not sufficient, and it can be said that this is an important issue for which organizational factors should be clarified.
The purpose of the paper is to explore the logic that explains the organizational change mechanism starting from robotic process automation (RPA) through multiple case studies. In this paper, we focused on two concepts, “automation” and “augmentation,” for this purpose. Focusing on the differences between individuals and organizations, which have not been fully examined in existing studies, we attempted to clarify the interaction between automation and augmentation through multiple case studies. We took up five departments of major telecommunications company X as multiple-cases. These five departments have in common that they have introduced RPA to carry out organizational change, but there are some differences. We tried to construct the hypothetical theory while paying attention to these commonalities and differences. The data used in the case studies were mainly interview data with each department and archival data such as in-house materials. The following three findings were discovered through the case studies. These are (1) the importance of dialogue in organizational augmentation, (2) disruption of individual augmentation and organizational augmentation, and (3) individual and organizational augmentation promoted by organizational automation. In conclusion, we organized these three findings into the hypothetical mechanism.
The purpose of this study is to propose a method to achieve product integrity by using machine learning technology. In many cases, customer needs are subjective and ambiguous. Therefore, it is difficult for the design department to understand them and achieve product integrity for them in the product development process. To address this problem, we developed a machine learning model that predicts expression words of customer evaluations from datasets such as product specifications and images. By using predictive models for customer evaluations, design departments digest customer needs without intermediators like marketing departments, so that they can directly identify the gap between customer needs and product value, and quickly fix it. To demonstrate this concept, we select camera lens as a target product and built a machine learning model based on the technology of image caption generation. After calibrating parameters by training dataset, the model obtained an accuracy that is close to the results of human captioning of images reported in the prior study. Finally, the study provides some examples of applications such as a cognitive map of product values and also a product positioning map of competing products, to show practical use cases in product development processes.
Loss of industrial competitiveness has led to the stagnation of local economies in many industrial regions. Many of the old industrial regions have found it difficult to change or to adapt due to their institutions. A strong regional economy is a resilient region, which means that the region can adapt to post-crisis changes. However, it is less clear what exactly is meant regional adaptive capacity. The research aimed to elucidate regional adaptive capacity through the process of transformation of industry agglomeration and its causes by adopting the concept of dynamic capability framework. This study analyzed the adaptive capacity of the Teesside chemical cluster, UK, using Teece’s dynamic capability framework, whose elements are sensing, seizing, and transforming. For industrial clusters to respond to change, the three elements of sensing, seizing and transforming needed to be linked and developed in three, production, innovation and governance systems. This adaptive capacity laid in individual, agency, and inter-organizational ones. The result is a multi-layered and multiple elements view of industrial clusters and an enhancement of the concept of regional dynamic capability, which could suggest a new perspective in the debate on cluster evolution or regional economic resilience.
This study aims to explore why and how firms use trade associations to facilitate collaborative experiments when they face rising disruptive technology such as artificial intelligence (AI). An in-depth case study research was conducted to investigate Retail AI Institute in Japan, a new grocery retail industry consortium of consumer-goods manufacturers and retailers which was established in 2017. The data were collected by 24 interviews, 32 meeting observations, and a thorough review of internal literatures including Slack chats, from February 2019 until March 2020. With the data, this study reveals three consistent themes in the motivations and processes observed in the activities—complementarity, uncertainty, and flexibility—particularly in collaborative experiments which explored various ways to use the new technology to improve the performance of retail stores.
Against the backdrop of structural changes in industries, companies should increase both short-term and long-term competitiveness to achieve their growth. Top managements need to integrate these two competitive forces by appropriately allocating firm resources and making a series of short-term results to long-term goals. This is why management ability is the essential resource for sustainable firm growth. In this context, this study examined the relationship between management ability scores (MAS) and future financial performances. Companies quarterly publish their financial guidance. The study tests the predicting power of MAS whether their financial guidance fit quarterly results or not. MAS is estimated by data envelopment analysis (DEA) with the panel dataset of quarterly financial reports. Empirical evidence suggests (1) MAS accurately predicts quarterly settlements. (2) Predicting power of MAS is robust when it is applied with the first guidance of financial terms while it is ambiguous with the revised ones. (3) MAS also accurately predicts positive (upward) surprises. A one standard deviation increase in MAS realizes 809 times higher accuracy to predict positive surprises. The findings of this study contribute the theoretical development on the relationship between management capability and financial performance.
The number of researches of corporate entrepreneurship (CE) have increased after the 1980’s, simultaneously with an increasing number of corporate venturing (CV) researches. One of the consequences of this is sometimes CE is confused with CV, especially in Japan. The purpose of this study is to construct a hypothesis of CE, especially clarifying the scope of the theory and the definition of CE. To clarify the scope and definition, as a research method, we review prior research, mainly by conducting a narrative review and partly conducting a systematic review. The conclusions drawn from this study include the following three points. First, CE consists of three constituents, namely, CV, strategic entrepreneurship, and innovation. Second, the scope of CE is described by the areas, where more than two elements overlap each other. And third, CE is defined as the entrepreneurship conducted by established companies, which include corporate venturing, accompanied by strategic renewal or innovation by established companies.
This paper studies the impact on productivity by innovation using plant and product-level panel data in Japan. The panel data could make us distinguish innovation by “New Varieties”, “Own Innovation”, “Constant Quality”, “Decreasing Quality”, and “Obsolescence”. This paper shows that relatively old firms produce many innovations, while the “New Varieties” type is brought by small size plant and the “Own Innovation” type is brought by large size plant. In addition, the plant-level fixed effect panel data estimation shows that “New Varieties”, “Own Innovation” and “Constant Quality” have positive impact on productivity. On the other hand, our estimation provides that “Decreasing Quality” and “Obsolescence” have negative impact on productivity.
This paper examines companies’ recognitions and interpretations of foreign employees working as regular employment in Japan. In previous studies, foreign workers have been understood in the polarized concept of highly skilled human resources who are the complementary labor force of the Japanese or peripheral workers who can fill the shortage of Japanese workers. However, the number of middle-skilled foreign workers with similar working conditions and skills as the Japanese has been increasing in recent years. This paper empirically clarifies what kind of recognitions and interpretations the Japanese personnel managers have for these foreign workers. An interview survey of 10 Japanese companies revealed that the logic of hiring foreigners is explained mainly from two perspectives: nationality and ability. Each factor is the logic of hiring foreigners in the same company, which means that foreigners are expected to have diversity different from that of Japanese workers, and at the same time, they are expected to behave in the same way as Japanese workers. These results suggest the dilemma for the human resources department of trying to hire new diversified employees while maintaining consistency in the same way as before.
The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of long-term transactional relationships on organizational growth, the effect of geographic distance on organizational outcomes, and finally, the effect of their interaction. However, prior studies in management have paid much attention to long-term transactional relationships but not to geographic distance. How geographic distance works in transactional relationships and interacts with long-term relationships is unclear questions. Using a dataset collecting from information on patent application to Japan Patent Office, we conducted the empirical analysis. The results of regression analysis show the following three points. First, relational embeddedness in long-term transactions has a negative effect. Second, geographic distance has no effect. Third, geographic distance reinforces the negative effects of relational embeddedness. This study's results were obtained by synthesizing the findings of management and economic geography, contributing to both areas.
This paper aims at empirically analyzing Huawei’s employee shareholding scheme behind its rapid growth to make it the leading Chinese communication manufacturer, with a particular focus on its governance aspect, which the literature has not revealed in depth. With a research question as “Who owns Huawei?”, it sheds light on the background and mechanism of the firm’s scheme and its role in the firm’s governance, drawing on publicly available sources, the preceding literature, and information provided by Huawei upon request. This paper contributes to the literature with following findings: Huawei Technologies is wholly owned by its holding company named Huawei Investment & Holding, which implements an employee shareholding scheme through its trade union, and it is owned approximately 99 % of the share by employees. Under the restriction from issuing regular stock to its employees, the shares held by the employees are designed as phantom stocks, which come with shareholder rights, including dividends, voting and property rights, as articulated in the Company Law. With Employee Shareholders' Representative Commission as the firm’s highest decision-making body, Huawei is employee-owned and controlled, with the founder having veto and its trade union, which is legally independent from the scheme, as the nominal shareholder.
This study examines a hype cycle in the organizational recognition of the business opportunity for breakthrough technology. While the hype cycle makes an implicit assumption which ignorant actors can recognize opportunities, the absorptive capacity theory emphasizes the necessity of related technological knowledge. We empirically test differences in the relationship between the amount of related technological knowledge and opportunity recognitions between individuals and their affiliated organizations using a questionnaire survey (n = 579). Our result indicated a U-shape relationship between the amount of an individual’s technological knowledge in blockchain technology and his/her expectation toward the technology's business opportunity. Also, we found an inverse-U shape relationship between the amount of organizational information technology knowledge and the existence of actual blockchain-related projects or plans. These results imply that the hype cycle is only applicable among individuals.