This paper examines how “commensurate trust” operates in relation to community capital (community-level social capital). Building on extant literature on social capital and networks, we specifically look at the community networks that evolved among the natives of China’s Wenzhou, often referred to as the birthplace of spontaneous capitalism in China. A key is to empirically grasp in depth how community members interact in local contingencies, to form a coherent pattern that may facilitate or inhibit further collective action. To what extent, moreover, is such pattern generation a product of community norms, values and strategies shared by them? How does such pattern generation differ from other communities whose collective performance is less impressive? This study directly addresses these issues with original empirical evidence. Drawing on extensive fieldwork, we investigate, at the community level, the emerging networking patterns of Chinese entrepreneurs from Wenzhou, whose striking economic success has been widely noted. In particular, we examine the extent to which Wenzhou entrepreneurs’ community-wide information search and sharing as well as mutual investments on the basis of their commensurate trust, which is reciprocated on an equal footing, is related to Wenzhou’s collective prosperity. We find the type and quality of commensurate trust shared and enjoyed by its exclusionary community members a key to decode the secrets of their success as well as to curb their evolvability.
This study focuses on the problem of managing reorganizing by using the sample of multinational corporation subsidiaries in emerging markets. Multinational corporation subsidiaries are typically required to reorganize themselves, since they face totally different business environments from their parent countries. Based on previous research, our prediction is that reorganizing is promoted by introducing alternative value systems, authority to decide, and interactions with external actors that have heterogeneous decision and behavior patterns. On the contrary, reorganizing is restrained and conventional business practices are accepted when companies are accepting conventional value systems and not possessing authority to decide. We examined those predictions by using data from 162 emerging market subsidiaries that are headquartered in Japan.
There is a great deal of studies on process of cluster formation. Some researchers try to explain as if the process is logical and rational. However, as there are a variety of stakeholders with different interests in a region, it is difficult for them to share a same purpose and value. In addition, the cluster formation process is regarded as full of chaos and conflicts. In such a situation, how and who can manage the process? In order to answer the question, organizing theory provided by Weick would be suggestive (Weick, 1979). In his view, we investigate the cluster formation process of Austin, Texas, which is famous for rapid growing high-tech cluster in a short time. As a result, it turned out that cluster formation process is like “a tapestry of accidental events and intentional ones; partly by accident, partly by design.” Given this, actors in the region should make an effort to create a virtuous cycle and be flexible enough to make changes, sometimes taking advantage of hapchance. In addition, the way to select and retain memories would have an effect on the further development of regions.
This study explores in detail about the relationship between attention on managerial issues and organizational inertia. Past research shows that rigid cognition make managers focus on specific issues and dispose of others, and such managers’attentional focus prevent strategy change. In this study we introduce the idea from attention based-view that issues are not fixed in managers’ attention but they are moving between inside and outside of attention. Analyzing the case of Sharp Corporation with this viewpoint, we find that top managers frequently changed the issues and their answers except for their central issue: Possession of LCD panel production. Issues like final product business strategy or alliance policy were used flexibly for maintaining or justifying the LCD panel production, and it disguised the critical inadequacy of excess LCD panel facilities. From this case, we inductively get some new propositions that flexible change of issue rather prevents changing strategies, if managers’ cognition is rigid.
When we focus on organizing, rather than organization, it is crucial to pay attention to the role of discourse and consider how social reality is shaped through discursive interactions in organizational settings. This paper explores effective discourse approaches to study the dynamic aspects of organizing. From the perspective of organizational communication, in particular from a communication constitutes organization, a focal point of studies has been on discursive interactions and their process in a variety of contexts. This paper illustrates basic understandings of organizational discourse studies that commonly emphasize conceptualizations of articulation, recontextualization, interdiscursivity, and polyphony, which sheds light on the dynamic development of social reality. The relationship between text and context must be understood in the analysis of intertextual relations. Studies of organizational discourse do not mean analysis about words and languages, but rather analysis of contexts with intertextual relationships. In doing so, a complex and often taken-for-grated contexts are interpreted in the dynamic process of organizing. A variety of discourse analyses are used as complementary approaches. These are beneficial for investigating the dynamics of historical, cultural, and everyday contexts. Eventually, the organizational discourse approaches challenge the study of complex social reality and attempt to expand beyond the limited areas of traditional management studies and traditional domains of research legitimatized by managerialism. While strong concerns have been expressed regarding a notion of organizing, it is crucial to change the conventional view of control in management to a more dynamic aspect of communicating and democratizing in organizations.
The purpose of this study is to indicate relationship of entrepreneurship and organizing. In this study, I use a case study of Hokkaido Television Broadcasting Co., Ltd.(HTB). HTB is the area television station in Hokkaido. HTB has dealt with much business of media by entrepreneurship of Mr. Toizumi of a current company president in recent years. Entrepreneurship by Mr. Toizumi is a process of deepening of the domain as the regional media and organizing. Therefore, it seems reasonable to conclude that essence of entrepreneurship is organizing which were given the meaning and the value by deepening of the domain.
This study examines the relationship among meanings, actions and identities in Karl Weick’s organizing theory based on empirical conversation analysis of dialysis treatment. The organizing theory suffers from the ambiguity in the role actions play; based largely on the assumed separation of subject and object and then leading to the separation of action and meaning, which is created only retrospectively. As a result, the theory imposes its own criteria in describing actions as enactment, selection and retention and ends up retaining the concept of organization as noun, which this theory set out to “stamp out.” The analysis first shows that the enactment that brackets “ecological change” is an accomplished matter through interactions in which categories are employed. Second, through the use of these categories, identities of patients and nurses are presented. Therefore, identity manifests itself in enactment rather than retrospectively in retention. Third, a meaning given to the enacted ecological change through selection is not retrospective construction but achieved within interactions themselves. The meaning is given to an action only through that very action in a reflexive manner. This renewed understanding of organizing helps clarifies the role of actions in organizing. Actions are not made possible by organizing that is done somewhere else; each action organizes itself reflexively. Through this reflexivity we can eliminate organization as noun and theorize organizing as verb.
The aim of this research was to demonstrate a cause–effect relationship in terms of the mode of inter-organizational relationships and the results of research and development through open innovation for the pharmaceutical industry. In various previous studies on the development of new drugs, conclusions regarding the effects of open innovation have not necessarily been coherent. This research used an empirical study to identify the most desirable inter-organizational relationships and management styles for the pharmaceutical industry. In terms of research methodology, a questionnaire was conducted. In addition, a patent database of drug development was analysed using the technique of social network analysis. In conclusion, the depth and breadth of inter-organizational relationships could have a serious influence on the success or failure of an open innovation. Also, suitable organization management according to the difference in industry segment or product characteristics became clear.