This study focuses on the process of market generation and diffusion. Especially, we examine the relationship between market attractiveness and legitimation of the product market. We conduct the study following two steps: First, we refer some previous work to analyze the transition of market such as socio-cognitive and institutional theories. Second, we propose a method to measure the legitimacy which change along with the market expansion from published newspaper articles. In general, it is difficult to observe the transition of the market change from behavioral outcome such as sale amount and diffusion rate, this study measures the latent market change from the change of the word. Third, we develop a quantitative model to examine the relationship between observed degree of legitimacy and marketing performances. Our empirical model is based on the bass diffusion model which enable us to estimate market diffusion rate and examine the impact of the legitimation on the diffusion rate and profitability. As a result, we find that market size and profitability increase at the formulation stage of the legitimacy, on the other hand, the market size and profitability decrease at the stabilized stage. Based on the findings, we also discuss the optimal market entry strategies and desirable new product development strategies. For example, we can obtain an implication to entry observing the change of the word.
The purpose of this study is to reveal about the environmental change in collaboration with heterogeneous and homogeneous organizations through a case study of conflict minerals. The starting point of a change in market environment is collaboration of homogeneous organizational collaboration. The collaboration changes standards of the industry and spreads over heterogeneous organization and the market environment is being controlled. We discuss that CSR is practiced inter-organizational collaboration with homogeneous and heterogeneous organizations. The key player controls the market environment. Moreover, the key-player is legitimated through the process.
In the Japanese game software market, 472 companies have launched 7,162 products from 1983 to 1999.In this process, multiple genres (product categories) are formed. The companies which have entered this market from 1983 to 1986 has launched some high novel products and established a new genre (sub-market). In midst of severe competition, how companies have carried out the product development? In order to attract users and to survive in the competition of sub-market, companies aimed to differentiate their products from the others. Companies unleashed their developers' talents to meet user needs. However, facing ambiguous user needs, it was also necessary to learn from the products which other companies developed. Combining their own originality and features learned from the other companies’ product, some companies created the excellent products. Companies learned each other through the products. As a result, companies had a certain degree of homogeneity in both the aspect of corporate behavior and the aspect of the product line-up. In consequence of such learning of companies, certain style of game appeared in Japan.
This study performed an empirical analysis of R&D based on technologies and knowledge embodied in people hired by advanced companies as engineers in emerging countries. In recent years, emerging companies in Asia have been recruiting numerous engineers from Japanese companies for their R&D efforts. This study empirically analyzed the R&D performance of companies for which engineers from Japanese companies have become employed. Result show that those engineers from Japanese companies contributed to increased patent production, patent complexity, and patent quality of companies in emerging Asian countries. However, the contribution is limited. Among the engineers from Japanese companies, engineers who contribute to increased patent production and who contribute to patent complexity, and patent quality are different.
This study investigates the nature of competition and cooperation between headquarters and subsidiaries and that between subsidiaries in Japanese multinational corporations (MNCs). First, this paper conducted case studies of six Japanese manufacturing subsidiaries in Thailand to clarify the condition in which competition between the headquarters and a subsidiary for subsidiary autonomy occurs. By doing so, this study clarified two findings. First, weak monitoring by headquarters can suppress competition between the headquarters and a subsidiary. Second, high subsidiary performance can encourage competition between the headquarters and a subsidiary when low level of subsidiary autonomy causes trouble in the subsidiary. Second, this study also conducted ordinary least squares regression analysis based on a questionnaire survey of 48 Japanese manufacturing subsidiaries in Thailand to investigate the relationship between competition and cooperation in subsidiaries. The result showed that high levels of competition are positively associated with high levels of cooperation. This implies that inter-subsidiary competition does not necessarily suppress cooperation between subsidiaries.
What is “good” sound to listen to music? How does the market work? This paper investigates market mechanisms of Japan’s high-end audio industry as linked to the global markets, from the point of view of pragmatic valuation as tasting of hardware products. It aims to test its validity and potential with relevance to the network analysis. The industry is a “creative industry” where art, technology and culture intersect to produce “good” quality sound for serious audiophiles who buy luxurious high-end equipments to enjoy listening to the aesthetic music. The serial work by Hennion on taste discusses attachments as a moment of sensations as to become music lovers or alcoholics. By contrast, applying network analysis of relevant social networks and fieldwork interviews of audiophiles in Denmark, France, Germany, Japan, Sweden, UK, and US markets, this research study focused on the hardware, which mediates the art of music and human minds as agents, the point largely ignored by the existing literature. As a result, the study found that the concept of “high fidelity” is the foundational notion of “good” sound as a shared benchmark among the stakeholders. However the complexity of valuation of sound as combination of art, culture and technology generates ambiguity or ambivalence regarding the definition. The fact requires a multi-dimensional approach to the tasting or evaluation with a rich and sophisticated repertoire of pragmatic knowledge from seasoned experience, highly subjective judgements as well as objective metric tests from engineering and technology. This ambivalence of high-fidelity is the engines that drives the market by creating the dynamic market valorization mechanisms where intermediaries coordinate stakeholders to stabilize value of the products through collaboration, confirmation, information sharing, legitimation, and updating or upscaling as agencement. This approach thus can elaborate on the coordination processes as well as the competitive dynamics of social networks in the marketplace beyond the relational structure.
Japanese fashion and apparel industry have been declining. A lot of small manufacturers have difficulties both to catch and deal with the trend quickly and to maintain production capabilities with other small manufacturers. It is problems not only of small manufacturers but also of designers to secure production capabilities because competent small manufacturers are necessary for designers to produce clothes they picture. Therefore, from the perspective of enhancing product development performance and creativity of the industry, to secure production capabilities is rather important. In both cases we describe, designers detect and nurture suppliers’ capabilities which suppliers themselves are not aware of. Based on these cases, we propose the supplier system that makers detect and nurture a handful of suppliers’ capabilities, which is different form the supplier system that makers select suppliers’ capabilities from a lot of suppliers.