We investigate how existing companies realize entrepreneurial opportunities and enter a new business. The new entry business strategy was initiated when the parent company in the electronics hardware industry recognized the necessity of entering the software industry. The paper reveals some interesting points by analyzing the process of an internal corporate venture (ICV) created by the parent’s R&D. First, the parent company let the new business entry organization with technology by R&D become an ICV despite that organization performing well among another businesses in the parent company. Second, comparing previous studies, we see ICV is not only created by an autonomous strategy from the parent strategy. Therefore, corporate strategy could be reformed if it failed. This case study leads the future research question about the parent ability to manage new entering businesses organizations, and how the parent company chooses the organizational formation to make growth for itself.
The purpose of this study is to develop an effectual concept for research on autonomy in business management. Despite the growing number of management approaches oriented to developing front-line’s autonomy, earlier studies have failed to examine those approaches as organizationally holistic development towards comprehensive management system. In order to overcome this problem, this study sets up ‘institutionalization of autonomy in management’ as a sensitizing concept for qualitative investigation, and conducts comparative study on the leading-edge cases of western enterprises; AES Corporation, the global electric power company based in U.S., and ABB Group, the global engineering company based in Switzerland. These cases are the most representative global enterprises in autonomy-oriented management. This study examines these cases in the points of organizational structure, management system, management processes, organizational culture, and other practices. As a result, this study develops the sensitizing concept, that is, ‘institutionalization of autonomy in management.’ The emerging organization is the construction of complex interrelated institutions. Multiple autonomy-oriented management practices are combined as complementary factors for accomplishing organizational goal consistently and effectively, rather than mere compilation of various practices or partial implementation of new practices into traditional hierarchical organization.
In social capital theory, network and assets embedded in tie have been studied as antecedent of individual innovation activity. Although acquisitions are reported resulting in the change of co-inventor network for R&D personals in acquired firms due to the position allocation and turnover, the prior studies have not enough investigated the impact of such a social capital change on the individual innovation activity after acquisition. This paper investigates the effect of the two types of their ego-network changes on the postacquisition innovation performance. First is disruption of exiting tie after acquisition, and second is the extension of new tie to inventors in acquiring firms. Using patent data, on a sample of 429 inventors in American semiconductor industry, we find that their old ties which are preserved after acquisition, and their new ties to acquirer's inventors increase the performance. Furthermore, we find that the positive impact of new ties is expanded as the degree of overlap in the technological knowledge of acquiring and acquired firm becomes lower.
The purpose of this paper is to clarify how the M&A (Merger and Acquisition) strategy influence the formation of competitive advantage with a process perspective. M&A is a practical strategy to gain the sustainable competitive advantage. Even though as a result M&A strategy effects on the competitive advantages, rarely in literature can be found a combination of both. To figure out the formation process of the competitive advantage, I conduct a case study of a Japanese firm which gained and strengthened it by multiple M&A strategies. Based on the Resource-Based View (RBV) argued by Barney (1991) and the Five Competitive Forces Model conceived by Porter (1985), I analyze both internal and external environment of the firm in this case. The results show that each of the two theories is not enough to explain the phenomenon under dynamic market environment and the capability dynamics perspective is needed especially relating to the complicated strategy like M&A. I find the multiple M&A experience should be treated a kind of dynamic capability which effects on the competitive advantages.
The purpose of this study was to clarify the activating factors of a professional group in a non-routine work. The research subject was a project team of the 48th Antarctic Research Summer Expedition. All members of the project participated a base construction operation. Since they were far away from Japan and isolated from the modern society, they were not influenced by the ordinary incentives, such as monetary reward, promotion, and evaluation by supervisors. Thus I thought it was possible to sort and clarify factors which activated a group excluding those external incentive factors in such special circumstances. I introduce Activity theory of Engeström(1999) on Group dynamics theory as a theoretical framework. Antarctic Research Expedition is a national project in which many ministries, government offices and companies participate. There are two missionary group, summer crop and winter crop, both of which include professionals in research and construction. The 48th Expedition was able to complete summer construction operations through collaboration among various professionals beyond their expertise fields in a limited period as two months. Eight interviewees, who had experienced both summer and winter operations, were selected from members of the 48th Antarctic Research Expedition. Data was collected through one to one non-structured interviews.The result showed that the daily non-planed rotation of works activated ability of a professional group. Group members rotated their works frequently, and engaged in works different from their expertise fields. Their applied skills were enhanced as they tried to adapt to the situation where their “rules of thumb” did not hold, and eventually their expertise and personal ability were also enhanced. This result suggests that the coordination system of the whole group as well as personal activities changed through members’ engaging in works of unfamiliar fields, which resulted in activation of ability of the entire group.
We attempt to overcome the issue of telework research, the limitation of the functionalism perspective, by re-conceptualizing telework as a process of spatial organizing. The previous telework research has assumed telework as a performance program which organizations ‘introduce.’ By virtue of the assumption, the reality of the emerging mechanism under the physical structures in which people are spatially apart from each other has been overlooked. This study argues telework understood as a service innovation through taking sociomateriality into consideration, rather than taking no account of the differences of spaces. In the case of a satellite office in Shirahama established by a web conference system company in Tokyo, we analyze the process of routinization involving heterogeneous actors with Actor-network Theory as a methodology. The result shows that the materiality of the ICT and the Shirahama office building had an affordance for spatial organizing; the routinization of ‘demonstration of the web conference system’. Besides, the new routine connected the independent actor-networks; the landscape of Shirahama and client meetings, and developed into an innovative organizational marketing technique. The previous telework research ironically tended to be indifferent about time and spaces. However, it would allow for telework as a service innovation to look at the special organizing process from the perspective of organizational affordance.
We conducted a case study concerning institutional logics in a corporate organization. The purpose of the study was to examine the mechanism by which a logic multiplicity formed by a pair of institutional logics, such as professional logic and business logic can give rise to institutional complexity and thus create conflict. Existing studies presupposed that the co-presence of multiple logics produces conflict, and made little attempt to examine the mechanism behind that conflict, thus generating a question: In a case of logic multiplicity, what kind of mechanism gives rise to conflict? Studies have treated the emergence of conflict as a given and have focused on the strategies firms use to suppress this conflict. To develop our argument, we focus on the ‘science logic’ and ‘business logic.’ We offer two key findings based on qualitative analysis of interviews and participant fieldwork data. First, sub-logic is inherent in another logic rather than being independent from each other. Second, the inherent sub-logic, which under normal circumstances was subsumed under the dominant logic, gradually became conspicuous, causing conflict with the dominant institutional logic and ultimately resulting in its expulsion, which eventuality can be related to ‘deposition.’
This paper revisits Kerl Weick's Organizing theory that has been regarded as process of sensemaking. In the existing discussions, the central theme of organizing and sensemaking is that participants organize to make sense of equivocal input and enact their situation to make their world more orderly. That is to say the purpose and main activities for organizing is reduction of equivocality. However, there exists some crucial questions; who makes sense of it, what is the situation, and what is the meaning of their action for themselves. Organizing theory could not explain these because it is still tied to cognitive model: subject recognizes equivocal situation(object) and just deal with it. We argue that process of sensemaking should be discussed at the intersubjective level and then redeem organizing theory. To do so this study focuses on service encounter in Japanese authentic bar to examine interaction between customer and bartender through ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The result shows that in the first step of organizing process, the identities of participants are presented and they organize their drink order reflexively. Weick also pointed out the identity but in his theory, it is constructed through process of organizing. We claim that identity is presented, not just constructed through the organizing process, that it to say presentation of self is essential role at the beginning of this activity. We should rethink Weick's organizing theory through empirical analysis focuses on organization practices to grasp his distinguished and ambiguous theory, “organizing” more correctly.
The tendency to underestimate the time required to complete a project, even while knowing that the vast majority of similar projects have run late, has been termed the “planning fallacy” (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979). Although many studies have shown that people often underestimate their task-completion time, the mechanism of the planning fallacy has not become clear. In order to verify the mechanism, this article conducted two experimental studies from the perspective of task difficulty. In Study 1, participants predicted the necessary times of two tasks (easy task and difficult task) and worked on them. As a result of Study 1, it was demonstrated that the task difficulty affected the degree of the planning fallacy. Participants underestimated the necessary time of easy task, but on the other hand participants overestimated the necessary time of difficult one; the difference was statistically significant (p < .01). Study 2 was conducted one year after the Study 1. In Study 2, participants recalled the task-completion times of two tasks which they had worked on one year ago. As a result of Study 2, it is shown that the task difficulty also affected the degree of the memory bias. Participants underestimated the task-completion time of easy task which they had worked on one year ago, whereas overestimated the task-completion time of difficult one; the difference was statistically significant (p < .01).
The purpose of this research is to gain some implications for the management of Japanese automobile dealers to satisfy both employees and customers. The specific aim of this research is to discover the reason why the level of employee satisfaction and customer satisfaction sometimes do not correspond. Comparative case study is conducted at the two branches of a Japanese automobile dealer. In the branch A, employee satisfaction was low but customer satisfaction was high. In the branch B, employee satisfaction was high but customer satisfaction was low. Semi-structured interview to the branch manager of each branch is conducted. The data from an employee survey and a customer survey by the dealer are also referred. In the branch A, high evaluation of cooperation among sales staff from customer is considered to be the cause of high overall customer satisfaction. At the same time, leadership practices of the branch manager which emphasizes cooperation of sales staff and high service quality resulted in heavy burden of sales stuff. It is assumed that this burden resulted in low employee satisfaction of the sales staff. In the branch B, customer evaluation of cooperation among sales stuff was low, and this appears to cause low customer satisfaction and low sales of vehicle inspection and repair. However, customer evaluation of the sales stuff in charge was high, which appears to have resulted in high number of car sales and high employee satisfaction of sales staff. It is implied that to satisfy both employees and customers in Japanese automobile dealers, service delivery by cooperation among sales staff is important. At the same time, consideration and support to lighten the burden of sales staff is required. In addition, the strategy of satisfying customer by the cooperation among sales staff is assumed to be effective for increasing after-sales service.
The purpose of this presentation is to clarify the roles of technological accumulation in the process of technological breakthrough by case study. According to previous studies, it is difficult to achieve the technological paradigm shift, which is important in technological breakthrough, because of stickiness to the existing technological paradigm. However, in actual technological breakthroughs, sufficiently accumulated technology according to the existing technological paradigm contributes greatly. Therefore, I considered the hypothesis of the technological breakthrough process and the roles of technological accumulation by detailed analysis of three technological breakthrough cases in development of semiconductor materials for Blue LED. As a result, I present the conclusions that the roles of technological accumulation in technological breakthrough are “to seek out for new key technological parameter outside” and “to know that the obtained key technological parameter is suitable” led by the "detailed map with blind area", a situation in which the mechanism of phenomena is incomplete and cannot be solved, despite the sufficient technological accumulation.
The limit of technology is the critical issue for the business. So it is said that companies have to estimate the limit of their technology and obtain the new technology which has more potential. However, there are some cases where the expected limitation is overcome. Though some papers such as Christensen (1992) and Henderson (1995) discuss the reasons of this phenomenon, it isn't enough because these literature don't trace the process of single company. So I'll consider what factors impose and revising the technological limits by using the case of Tokaido Shinkansen. I use the SCOT approach as the framework for analyzing the cases. The framework is proposed in Pinch and Bijker (1987) and Bijker (1995). The former is the original version and the latter isthe updated version. I try to think which frameworks have more accuracy. The cases are (a) the development of Shinkansen, (b) the improvement of Shinkansen and (c) the development of Nozomi. In conclusion, the Pinch and Bijker (1987)'s original framework is better for case (c). And Bijker (1995)'s framework is better for case (a) and (b). The factors which impose the limit are (1) criterion formed by the experience, (2) the opinion of experts and the practice of foreign countries, and (3) the regulation and organizational conflict. The factors which revise the limit are (1) leadership, (2) the organizational reform, (3) research method different from conventional method, and (4) basic research and knowledge acquisition.
Epson, among leading manufacturers of inkjet printer, introduced so-called ‘’Ink-Tank Model’’ to emerging countries in 2010 as the results of its adaptive learning activities to emerging markets where refilling of third party ink was predominant and thereby ‘’laser blade’’ business model, by lowering machine prices to increase machines in the filed aiming the profit from ink cartridge sales, did not properly work. The Epson’s Ink-Tank case provides rich insights into the market structure of context-dependent tacit knowledge and the cognitive structure within global organization. In many of emerging countries, it was supposed at strong lock-in status that their party ink was predominant because the value chains of third party supplies were strongly formed, and because of users’ mind-set that I would reduce the printing cost. At the same time, venders could hardly attentively recognize the pains to use their party ink, because they were trying to promote original cartridges. After Epson searched the users, many customers’ pains of third party ink user were found, such as ink leakage, print quality problem, and head damage. And head damage requires high repair cost or machine replacement cost. And they came up with a new product concept ‘’Ink-Tank Model’’ with large ink tank by doubling machine price and reducing genuine ink cost to 1/20, compared with conventional models. Since the required knowledge for this introduction was so tacit within the context of emerging countries, and contexts were beyond imagination of global head quarter in Japan, Epson made 3 strategies to make the proper sense-making of market information. Focused on Indonesia to make the deep search of market needs by local staff and engineers in head office Transferred authorities to local sales office for activities of research before the introduction and activities of its diffusion Tried to minimize the technical changes from conventional models looking for earliest introduction of ‘’Ink-Tank Model’’ to Indonesia market, but to get the feedback from markets to make the improvements on second generation model introduced in 2012 to many other emerging countries.
Recently, in research of entrepreneurship, much attention has been paid to the new approach, which trying to formulate an excellent entrepreneur's decision-making principle. As one of them, there is the concept of "effectuation" that Saras Sarasvathy advocated. In this paper, first, it explain the "effectuation" and sorting out an issue of competitive strategic theory and consider the possibility of "effectuation" in this field. As the result, this paper pointed out that it is important point that how to balance or fuse “Correspond to Knight's the third uncertainty” and "special solutions embedded in specific contexts"
This qualitative research explores how and why unintended decoupling emerges in organizations under institutional pressure. I investigated five cases of mid-size Japanese-listed B2B manufacturing companies in their adoption and implementation of global talent management (GTM) at their headquarters during 2004-2015, through an interview-based comparative case study. Three firms had slow implementation and symptoms of unintended decoupling, and the other two had fast implementation and no characteristics of unintended decoupling. The case choice provided an exemplar context in which organizations in a field faced institutional pressure to adopt a new practice (GTM) over the traditional practice (Japanese HRM) which contradicts with the new in many aspects. The study provided three findings. First, there was a lack of consensus among internal stakeholders (the top management and GTM task force team versus business units and HR in overseas offices) about whether GTM was relevant to their current operations and would bring practical returns, when unintended decoupling was observed. In those organizations, GTM task force team could not resolve the practical value dispute and thus failed to persuade business units and overseas HR to accept its institutional legitimacy. Second, the emergence of unintended decoupling correlated with the nature of the organization’s adoption decision making process. Unintended decoupling emerged in cases in which GTM adoption decision was made largely due to institutional considerations. Those organizations, without strong sources of internal legitimacy such as founder family CEO and shared problem solving protocols, proactively searched for sources of legitimacy outside themselves. Conversely, non-decoupling case firms adopted GTM purely due to practical considerations. These firms had founder family CEO and their own explicit problem solving protocols which were developed through the history of the founder and firm. Third, GTM implementation advanced when the practice received official organizational endorsement, such as the clear link with the firm’s mid-term strategy, cross-functional projects, and large resource investments in the tasks force team. The will and efforts of individuals did not explain differences of results across cases. The present study contributes to the debate about organizational responses to institutional pressure, by empirically showing (a) the mechanism of why and how unintended decoupling emerges and (b) the understudied link between the way a practice is adopted and the way it is implemented.
In newly formed industries, the formation of the dominant design and sudden changes in the competitive environment forces most companies to exit in a short period of time in a “shake-out (sharp decrease)” (e.g., Klepper & Graddy, 1990). Industries that undergo significant technological changes tend to have more severe shake-outs (Agarwal, 1998). Therefore, what should a company do to avoid withdrawal by shake-out? Among various perspectives, strengthening “CEO power” is an important factor in avoiding a shake-out (e.g., Daily, McDougall, Covin, & Dalton, 2002; Filatotchev & Toms, 2003). Therefore, in this study, we analyzed statistically the effect of CEO power on withdrawal and strategic decision-making. This study examines the Japanese online securities industry, in which technology change occurs at an extremely rapid speed. The analysis results are as follows. (1) While there is no correlation between distress and withdrawal, financial restructuring (merger of parent company) has a significant positive impact on withdrawal. (2) The stronger the “CEO power,” the more likely the company will withdraw. (3) The stronger the “CEO power,” the lower is the distress. (4) The stronger the “CEO power,” the more is the important strategy adopted. (5) Subsidiaries of domestic financial institutions tended not to adopt the important strategy.
Boundary Spanners (BSs) play significant roles in coordinating the relation and exchanging information and resources with other organizations. However, prior researches have not discovered the interaction among BSs in public and Nonprofit fields, especially in the context of the post-disaster reconstruction. Based on the Qualitative research with interviews from 69 BSs of Local Governments (LGs), Neighborhood Associations(NAs) and Support Groups(SGs) such as NGOs/NPOs in 18 districts of Miyagi Prefecture, the most damaged prefectures of the Great East Earthquake Japan on March 11,2011, this article explored the nature of BSs facilitated collaboration and reducing the conflict among above-mentioned organizations in 5 years reconstruction process. The initial discoveries of this research are as follows: The important characteristics and nature of the BSs are solid way of thinking, flexible reaction, experience of victims or same hometown, listening skills. The BSs in LGs faced with institutional and post-disaster limitations, but some communicated with BSs of other organizations as equal partners and utilized their discretions considering the situations on the ground. The BSs of SGs are required to have clear self-introduction, the ability to complete public projects, relations with Local governments and trust from local residents. The BSs of NAs needed to understand the activities in local community, information sharing, sound relations with respective residents, and communication with other organizations. LGs and NAs experienced the conflicts due to the slow response from LGs to the requests and questions of residents. However, BSs of SGs played translating roles between two organizations and alleviated the conflicts. The LGs and NAs suspected the intention and ability of support groups and exercised the caution not to avoid overreliance of the residents. However, the BSs of SGs have garnered the confidence from them after encouraging residents' initiatives through the respects and the realizations of the residents' opinions.
Nissan-Renault alliance is regarded as an honor case of international alliance, which means one of the most successful alliances in the industry. Among various reasons why this alliance has achieved such a success, this paper pays attention to the role of alliance governance, which is the structure to govern the behaviors of each partner in the alliance. There are three forms of governance, namely equity governance, contractual governance and relational governance. Nissan-Renault alliance has implemented all of these governance forms with quite high level of intensity. In evaluating how each form of governance has contributed to the achievement of alliance, the study aimed to clarify the mechanism in which alliance governance influences alliance performance through four mediating factors (opportunistic behaviors, conflicting interests, synergy effects, and learning effects) involved in this relationship. For the purpose of this clarification, a survey was conducted on strategic alliances which Japanese manufacturing firms have formed with foreign as well as domestic firms, and data for 215 alliance samples became available. As a result of analysis, it was clarified that the relational governance has the most significant influence on alliance performance through positively affecting all of the four mediating factors. It was also clarified that the contractual governance has limited influence on alliance performance through only two mediating factors, while the equity governance has no influence on alliance performance. The results of this analysis imply that the relational governance implemented in Nissan-Renault alliance has played the significant role in controlling and coordinating the behaviors of partners. Considering the particular characteristics of relational structure between the two partners, such as the dual responsibilities of same managers for CEO(Chief Executive Officer) and other senior management positions of both partners, the study concludes that the tightly built relational governance has contributed to the distinguished achievements of this alliance.
This research explores why some keiretsu have been maintained while others have been dismantled in the Japanese auto industry. Drawing on Asanuma's (1989, 1994) argument that the relation-specific skill consists of the surface layer and the basic layer, we propose that the keiretsu that could have the suppliers develop and improve the basic-layer skill and thus enable them to supply for non-keiretsu OEMs would survive. Some preliminary empirical evidence to support the proposition, derived from the panel data on OEM-supplier transactions for 54 components over thirty years from 1984 to 2008 in the Japanese auto industry, is presented.
This study develops a framework of capability building and evolutionary path of second tier suppliers. The foundational framework that has been accepted for capability assessment of automotive parts suppliers was a series of researches by Dr. Asanuma Banri. He proposed the concept of “relational skill” to be used as the capability of parts suppliers to effectively respond to car manufacturers’ requests for parts supply, and product design capability, in particular, was positioned as the core of relational skill. Asanuma’s viewpoint of assessing parts suppliers’ capability by the presence or absence of product design capability could make sense since the burden of R&D for car manufacturers is greater than before. However, his evaluation framework has the following two points that need further consideration. Firstly, his framework derives from the relationship between car manufacturers and first tier suppliers. Secondly, Asanuma’s framework is strongly influenced by the viewpoints of those who place orders. Taking into account that our target is second tier suppliers, we have to clarify the following two points, namely the relational skill needed for second tier suppliers and their own business viewpoints other than the relational skill. We conduct a series of interviews with first and second tier suppliers to address the agendas. Through the interviews, we have understood that process design and domain design are also critical as well as product design in terms of evolutionary path of second tier suppliers. Consequently we propose the evaluation framework consisting of product design capability, process design capability and domain design capability.
We theoretically propose new theoretical consistent formulation to unify product design and utility function in the market. As the first step, we introduce the Fermi-Dirac entropy for modularity matrix in product design from statistical mechanics, and show that the entropy for modularity matrix is the number of possible product design to be realized by satisfying both functional requirements and constraints. Next, from information theory, we confirm that the Fermi-Dirac entropy in product design is one of Shannon entropy in information theory even if discretized. As the second step, the entropy for modularity matrix in product design is connected to the market by extended Lancaster’s consumption technology matrix from functional requirements in product design to customer needs in the market. As the third step, the Shannon entropy in product design is identified as one kind of expected utility function as preference in the market, and also the Fermi-Dirac entropy in product design is shown to be equivalent to quasi-linear utility function in economics.
National culture or different national culture is known to affect organizational and management practices since managers as cultural bearers who embody specific culture translate their assumptions and values into these practices when designing them. These managers’ assumptions and values are closely associated with national culture and represent an important aspect of national culture. Thus, organizations and management practices are bound by national culture and these practices are likely to diverge across different societal cultures. Cross cultural researchers have explored the two different roles national culture can play. On the one hand, they have described national culture as an independent variable and explored its effect on organizational and management practices. On the other hand, they have captured national culture as a moderator variable and explored whether it can moderate the relations between management practices and individual or organizational outcomes. In this research I will attempt to integrate the prior cross cultural studies by exploring national culture’s these different roles together. More specifically, I will try to estimate the direct effect of national culture on management practices; the conditional effect of management practices on performance by different cultures; and the conditional indirect effect of national culture on performance via management practices that is dependent on different national culture. In order to estimate these effects, I will conduct conditional process analysis that integrates the mediation model and the moderation model by using data from Japanese and the US manufacturing teams. I have found the effect of national culture on management practices across different models. Although I have found conditional effect by national culture and national culture’s indirect effects, all models have not consistently yielded these results. Notwithstanding those results, my research would contribute to cross cultural research in that I integrated the two streams of cross cultural studies; I then attempted to estimate the direct, conditional, and indirect effects regarding national culture by conducting conditional process analysis.
The rapid increase in the number of Japanese MNCs’ overseas R&D facilities since the mid-1980s indicates the intention of these firms to become global players. Many Japanese MNCs, notably those in the fields of electronics, automobiles, and pharmaceuticals, have intensified their efforts to exploit foreign markets. They also own overseas R&D facilities to develop products for local markets and/ or acquire technological information or research seeds, from local universities, research institutes, and company laboratories. This study describes the trend and presents such overseas R&D activities handled by Japanese MNCs. The study then analyzes, quantitatively and qualitatively, the characteristics of the overseas R&D management system involved in conducting such activities. The study tests the factors driving research outcomes of overseas R&D by Japanese MNCs using a questionnaire survey and on-site interviews with R&D managers at Japanese MNCs. Furthermore, it assesses overseas R&D management at Japanese MNCs according to the objectives and outcomes of local R&D. The study shows that the factors driving research outcomes vary according to the objectives of overseas R&D, and the local R&D management by Japanese MNCs is likely to correspond to these objectives. Moreover, the results show that the type of management required at overseas R&D facilities differs according to their objectives and functions. However, overseas R&D management by Japanese MNCs continues to use a Japan-centered management system. This study contributes to the literature of global R&D activities and provides an understanding of international R&D management.
Morinaga Co., Ltd. is one of the listed companies with the first section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange, and its main business is manufacture and sale of confectioneries, foods, frozen desserts, health drinks etc. This paper describes the case study of Morinaga Co., Ltd. collaborated with 01Booster Inc. practicing Open Innovation. Morinaga Co., Ltd. implemented the "Morinaga Accelerator Program" from December 2015. This system collected 40 advisors with various knowledge and experience called "Mentor" from inside and outside of the company. In the company, they are experts in various fields such as production engineering, quality control, marketing, intellectual property, law, advertisement, for instance. Outside of the company, people with entrepreneurial experience, fund raising, and have a great network of connection. Through the implementation of the Accelerator Program, the company has created a mechanism for investing in new venture companies. More than 100 new business plans entries received, 4 were selected, and 2 were decided to be invested in 2015. The number of entries had increased 2016 compared with last year. 7 plans had been selected, and Morinaga is considering investment destinations. In addition, the company had established "Learning with Venture Companies" program by in-house open recruitment. Two employees selected by the internal public offering were transferred to the investee companies for one year. The two employees reduced the experience of the program to the company and led to improvement of the internal environment. They also cooperated in hiring new graduates and improved the company's brand image.
Many researches on leadership found that "Task” and "Human” were the two major dimensions of leadership. There seems an assumption that those leadership researches were based on certain organizations where homogeneous members did relatively simple and routine tasks. PM (Performance and Maintenance) theory (Misumi and Shirakashi, 1963; Misumi and Tasaki, 1965) fits this type of leadership in homogeneous organization. However, another leadership should be necessary for diversity management with heterogeneous members. As a case of diversity management, this study focused on leadership of Japanese managers to their foreign young employees in traditional Japanese companies. The purpose of this study is to explore a new leadership theory by expanding PM theory. In this study, 10 pairs (20 people) of foreign young employees and their managers at seven Japanese companies were interviewed. Foreign young employees were classified into two groups. The first group had low motivation with loneliness and passive career perspective. Leadership behaviors of this group's mangers were Task Performance and Human Maintenance. The second group had high motivation with strong organizational commitment and positive career perspective. This group's mangers had two new leadership behaviors. One was to create new tasks so that foreign employees could work for their organizational missions (Task Creation). The other was mutual learning between foreign employees and their Japanese managers (Human Synergy). These behaviors were based on an equal relationship between leaders and followers. Based on these results, a theoretical matrix was proposed with Task-Human dimension and Homogeneity-Diversity dimension. Then leadership behaviors with Task Creation and Human Synergy, which can be called “CS theory”, was developed. Task Creation is possible because there is not a job description in Japanese human resource management. CS theory might be able to explain an essential leadership behavior for diversity management especially in Japanese companies. In a future study, a quantitative survey is necessary to examine the proposed CS theory which is distinguished from PM theory.
Drawing on the equity theory, we predict that the effect of pregnancy discrimination (Maternity Harassment) differs between the attitudes of regular workers and non-regular workers. Using survey data from 1,049 Japanese workers, we focus on the effect of pregnancy discrimination on the attitude toward work-life balance. We also classify pregnancy discrimination into three types. The results show support our hypothesis partially. We also discuss implications for theory and practice.