Transactions of the Academic Association for Organizational Science
Online ISSN : 2186-8530
ISSN-L : 2186-8530
Current issue
Showing 1-40 articles out of 40 articles from the selected issue
  • Masaharu ISHIKAWA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 1-6
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this presentation is to demonstrate effects of incertitude of scientific knowledge on innovation in production with recombinant technology for food-processing enzymes and animal feed enzymes. The technological trajectories of food-processing enzymes are self-enforced not only technological factors and market factors but also risk information derived from scientific allergy research under incertitude of scientific knowledge. A novel production system for recombinant phytase was developed for animal feed enzymes, because recombinant phytase can prevent environmental pollution in rivers and lakes. The case of recombinant phytase indicates importance of social legitimacy to accomplish innovation under incertitude of scientific knowledge.

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  • Masato HORIO
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 7-13
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this research, through case study of organizations that create a lot of intrapreneurs, we examined that effective coping with failure in intrapreneurship is culturally rooted and revealed the following things. The word "failure" was observed as a frequent word, most of which was used in the same sentence as a positive expression. In addition, many remarks were found consistent with the failure model created on the basis of the previous research, and it was also found that knowledge on failures that had been studied in the entrepreneurship field exists in the company entrepreneur as well. As an analysis method, text mining, which is one of sentence analysis methods, was carried out based on the founder's interview and proceedings minutes. In addition, we analyzed the content of original text and tried to clarify the characteristic points of usage of failure in management of organization culture of enterprises with many intrapreneurs.

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  • Sekai KIDA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 14-19
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Many Japanese companies are suffering in little or no growth in sales of products because of shrinking market. Some companies are trying to extend revenues from after-sales services, but it seems that few companies are succeeding in growing after-sales services. This is partially because there is a challenge of making new service standard in each shop for the transition for servitization. In addition, conflict between departments and resistance from shop floor staffs might occur. In this paper, possible problems about standardization, distribution of authority between headquarters and shops and conflict will be discussed depending on existing researches to gain future research themes and implications for the transition for the after-sales service oriented company.

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  • Shengnan WANG
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 20-25
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this paper, we examine the effect of the supervisor's special treatment for others on the justice perceptions of an employee. simultaneously, we examine how the supervisor's special treatment for others interacts with the special treatment that employees themselves receive to affect the justice perceptions of employees. We conducted hierarchical multiple regression analysis using data from 300 Japanese employees. The results suggest that the supervisor's special treatment for others has a negative influence on the justice perceptions of employees. However, the relationship is not moderated by the special treatment that employees themselves receive. We think this unexpected result is because that employees’ justice perceptions are biased by their self-interests. Finally, the theoretical implications of our findings are discussed.

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  • Keigo IKEZOE
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 26-31
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    As the sharing economy develops, there is a possibility that the way in which people use cars will change dramatically from car ownership to sharing and there has been a rise in ride/car-sharing businesses. Therefore it became more important to understand the utility of car ownership, which is other than the means of transportation, that is, endowment effect of cars. In this research, the web questionnaire which asked the car sharing and car ownership intention for 1000 car owners and for 1000 non-car owners in Japan has been conducted. The result suggested that the endowment effect of cars for car owners was 480,000 yen per year on average. On the other hand, the utility of car ownership for non-car owners was 130,000 yen per year on average, which is considered as a means of pure transportation. The results obtained in this study could be explained by the prospect theory indicating steeper for losses than gains in the value function.

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  • Ai YAMADA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 32-38
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Recent science policies emphasize academic mobility and denounce inbreeding, a type of academic origin, which new employees are hired from among the graduates of the same institution, as an impediment to scientific productivity. On the other hand, it remains to be determined how graduate students training is affected by supervisors’ academic origin. This study aims to investigate the impact of academic origin on students’ scientific productivity, drawing on in-depth longitudinal data of academics’ careers and students’ individual data in University of Tokyo. The results suggest that the effect of inbreeding on students’ scientific productivity differ with the organization levels (university, department, and laboratory) with which inbreeding is defined, as well as with past affiliation to other institutions. Inbreeding has a positive aspect in research personnel training, and policy to eliminate it uniformly needs to be reconsidered.

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  • Fumie HIGASHI
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 39-44
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this paper is describing impact of communication among actors on an innovation. Recently, many actors come to participate in technological innovation. Previous studies showed that exchanging information between users and a manufacture was a proper solution for success. However, communication among actors could be more important than exchanging information. Therefore, participant observation of communication between users and a manufacturer when they introduce a walking device to a nursing facility has been done. The results confirm that integrating actor’s motivation, mutual understanding of objects, and sharing experience among actors are needed for an innovation.

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  • Akira SUGIYAMA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 45-50
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify what kind of processes and approaches can be used in the formation of international technical standards leading to the establishment and promotion of new innovation technologies like EV. Moreover, different factors are explored in assessing whether new approaches are effective compared to conventional standardization research methods. From the case study of the CHAdeMO Council, it is possible to show that organizations promoting standardization strategies are likely to have more Ambidexterity requirements. In addition, this case study suggests that the integrated management and strong leadership of the secretariat can promote the initiatives of different sub-working groups and be utilized even in the same organization.

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  • ThiXuanTho PHAM
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 51-56
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    What should a multinational company do with its business when expanding to a new country’s market, thus remaining the success while it succeeded in other countries in the past? We study the antecedents and drivers of subcontractor localization in Vietnam motorcycle market of Honda which has an impressive success in Vietnam. This study demonstrates there are significant differences in the business environment between countries, hence a common success strategy for all foreign market expansions does not exist. Basically in any country, a strong level of localization will bring good results for the company. This localization depends on environmental conditions of each country in which the localization varies in terms of localization’s content and method. In Vietnam, the localization of component manufacturing companies according to the Japanese approach will lead to the success of Honda. Moreover, even after participating in a new market, the business environment constantly changes. The localization of business is an appropriate approach for multinational companies to face environmental changes and to maintain business success. This study emphasizes the theory of “market adaptation”. The findings of this study contribute to the development of International Business theory.

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  • Takuya SHIKANO
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 57-63
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Despite research over the past three decades, the key factors for success and failure of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) remain poorly understood. Especially cross-border M&As are considered highly emotional event for employees and interfirm conflict can be created by status difference between an acquirer and a target during post-merger integration (PMI). Therefore, this study investigates mechanisms through which status difference (national-status and firm-status) affect M&A performance through analysis of cross-border M&As by Japanese firms. The analysis of 1,371 cross-border acquisitions by Japanese firms from 2001 to 2011 shows that status difference creates interfirm behavioral consensus (leader-follower relationship) avoiding conflict and role ambiguity by information asymmetry; as a result, it affects PMI and performance effectively. This study also emphasizes that the alignment of two firms’ role expectations between status based role and M&A embedded role is important for acquirer’s managers to improve post-merger performance.

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  • Kaoru SONODA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 64-69
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper examines how Japanese employment systems affect companies’ attitudes toward the employment of foreign workers. Foreigners working in Japanese companies is now a common phenomenon. Some foreign workers who work in Japanese companies cannot adapt, and they leave their companies after some years; companies as well as researchers have taken cognizance of this serious problem. Many studies have found that the cause of such problems lies in the customs espoused by Japanese traditional employment practices and systems; these systems hinder the acceptance of others within the organization. Utilizing quantitative data from 171 companies listed on the Tokyo Stock Exchange, this study investigates the relationship between the systems used by Japanese companies and the attitudes toward accepting foreign workers in such companies. The findings of this study suggest that the expected relationships between Japanese traditional employment systems and companies’ attitudes do not exist. After controlling for the year of establishment, the numbers of employees, sales volume, and the category of business, Japanese traditional employment systems are found to be related to positive attitudes about the employment of foreign workers.

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  • Yasuaki KIKKAWA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 70-75
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this research is to focus on employment recruitment and internship in local governments from the viewpoint of employment mismatch and to examine factors behind it.

    There are an increasing number of companies and others implementing internships to eliminate employment mismatches represented by early retirement of young people who do not decrease.

    Local governments that are doing internships are increasing. But internships are prohibited from being associated with recruitment activities. Even if the work experience in the internship, it is often useless duties after hiring.

    Because, in order to comply with the law, they focus on implementing fair recruiting activities rather than hiring highly skilled people. Also, there are various stakeholders, and the values are persistent that they take no risk. Actually, even if there is no risk, even if 1% possibly they do not take risks. They are merely doing internship, which is engaging in recruitment activities.

    Therefore, the idea of how to flexibly operate after complying with the law and respecting it is required. Public officials cannot easily increase staff. This is because approval in Congress is necessary.

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  • Takahiro INADA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 76-82
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    These days, various work styles are emerging, especially more and more people choose to work independently. Along with that global trend, this study focus on difficulties to which those people face: acquiring help from others is a big challenge for them. From this point of view, this research conducted a longitudinal case study of three nascent entrepreneurs, especially focusing on their business development process, and examine the effect of interpersonal interaction with others to that process. Many previous literature shared this perspective, but helping in nascent organizations is still under-researched. Qualitative data analysis revealed a detailed process and contents of help and also two phases significant in early stage. First, they tend to wander and need others to give a push because there is no constraining technology and bunch of alternative ideas to be realized. Second, after taking a first step, they have to implement their ideas quickly. However, if a path forward seems unclear or human resources are limited, their business development speed is going down. In conclusion, nascent community-building entrepreneurs need help from others to take a first step and move their business forward with some sense of direction in an ambiguous situation.

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  • Tomoaki TABATA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 83-88
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The work-life balance (WLB) which is "harmony of work and life (family)" is attracting more attention by the suggestion of "work style reform" in 2017. While many initiatives to improve the work style are proposed and implemented, it seems that there are not many reports on such efforts. This is thought to be attributable to that there is no established means for quantitatively grasping the state of the WLB of individuals or organizations themselves. Many of the research fields of WLB were mainly qualitative, such as case studies, workplace environment, policies. However, from a quantitative point of view, although several studies such as evaluation of measures for WLB and relevance to productivity are observed, there are few studies to quantitatively grasp the state of WLB of an individual or organization themselves. On the other hand, Tabata et al. Proposed a work-life balance sheet (WLBS) that uses the balance sheet as a model to quantitatively grasp such WLB. In this research, based on this WLBS, we aim to establish a model to quantify and visualize WLB in individuals and organizations (workplaces) and to verify the effectiveness.

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  • Masaaki KITAMURA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 89-95
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the characteristics of career competencies (Arthur, 1994) of boundary-crossing professionals. Recently in Japan, some business persons have been trying to develop their expertise within the corporation through active job changes. These individuals may become a part of the core personnel team of Japanese firms, contributing to developing core competencies. Their career competencies are worth examining because they need to overcome difficulties, such as conflicts with other employees that internally develop, and transitions associated with boundary crossing, in addition to the attainment of certain expertise. Interview data were gathered from 10 participants who had served as chief financial officer (CFO), which were analyzed using the modified grounded theory approach. Findings revealed are the following: (1) career insights from evaluating their strengths based on the comprehension of the nature of the CFO was important for developing of their professional identities, (2) the ability to build credibility as professionals under new circumstances and develop their careers through job changes was important for their career adaptation, and (3) career communities formed among members who engaged in the same tough assignments at the company with high mobility were important to get the information about the career opportunities.

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  • Ikutaro ENATSU
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 96-102
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    When employees accept their reward, the positive side of time perspective increases and the negative side of time perspective decreases. Such a acceptability is produced by the accuracy of performance evaluation, correctly fixed rewards, and decision-making based on close communication. However, many of such relationship are not mediated by employees’ perceived fairness (general fairness judgment). The more interest in reward of proper manner, and the more preference for equity distribution and equal distribution, employees tend judge the degree of fairness based on actual system, outcome and process of reward distribution. Perceived fairness decreases the negative time perspective, especially when employees perceive fitness with job environment and receives adequate level of rewards.

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  • Naoto KANKI
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 103-108
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    To produce good-designed goods is getting critical for firm’s success. Many researchers have investigated key factors on coordinating interactions to design products well, but micro/psychological aspects aren’t investigated enough. This exploratory study aims at examining the effects of attitude of integrator toward project on product design performance. We derived our data from a net-research firm’s monitor and corrected 168 samples working in electric and machinery industry. To measure attitude of integrator toward project, we make questions originally. And we conducted factor analysis and path analysis. Findings from this study weakly support hypothesis concerning attitude of integrator toward project have positive effects on design performance.

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  • Airi AKAMA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 109-115
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the difference between intellectual property activity (IPA for short) and development activity (DA for short), and to examine the merit of synergy between them. The synergy of both activities is recommended strongly in enterprise. However, intention behind the synergy is not elucidated.

    We are concerned with kogation in a thermal ink-jet printer, which is a core of ink-jet printer technology of Canon. We compare the DA task flow and the IPA task flow.

    (1) In DA of the low kogation ink, fuzziness level of DA is reduced as time elapses.

    (2) During patenting process of the low kogation ink, IPA promotes numerical range patents into a generic concept.

    DA find an optimal solution while IPA conceptualize the solution. It turns out that

    (i) an appropriate level of conceptualization of the solution is important to refine the solution of problems and

    (ii) a typical, illuminating solution is important to conceptualize the solution.

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  • Kyohisa UCHIUMI
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 116-121
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this presentation is to clarify logic of technological evolution in innovation process by case study of ship technology. According to previous studies, it is difficult to achieve the technological evolution because of stickiness to the existing technological paradigm. However, in actual technological development, there are dramatic technological evolutions. Therefore, I considered the technological evolution process by detailed analysis of two technological evolution cases in development of ship hull technology for high speed. As a result, I present the conclusions that technological breakthrough is newly defined as a pattern of technological evolution that breaks the limit of existing technology. And I present the hypothesis of the solution process by technological inspiration.

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  • Kenji MARUYAMA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 122-127
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    To have a success in the organizational change, the leaders, or the change agents, should aware the psychological states of the organizational members and know who the positive attitudes or the negative attitudes show. Most results of the researches on organizational changes exhibited that the most members in organizations choose the decision not to change, because they were rational decisions for themselves.

    In this study, how the cooperative behavior of the organizational members promote to make a progress of the organizational change. The cooperative behavior should be an initial step to make lower levels of the psychological barriers toward the change.

    The research intended that the tendency of the cooperative behaviors designed with the method of behavioral economics demonstrated by Thaler, shown in his book of “Winner's Curse: Paradoxes and Anomalies of Economic Life”.

    After giving a sufficient explanation of the benefit to choose the lottery which is in the higher expected value but a slight look of lower probability in one trial, 18.1% members, as an average in all members, changed their decisions and agreed to show cooperative behaviors. The group of the faculty staff shows 27.8%, which is higher than the average. This implies that the possibilities should be higher to make lower levels to psychological barriers in the cooperative behaviors. In other words, the risk-averse decreases and the risk-acceptant increases under the psychological value functions.

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  • Yoko TAKEDA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 128-133
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study explored how perspective replacement (i.e., perspective-taking of other people, metaphor and analogy) and team members’ diversity influence on creative performance through the questionnaire survey of corporate engineers who were engaged in projects regarding new products, technology, business, or process improvement (n=306). Conducting regression analysis that includes other exploration variables, we found that perspective replacement significantly improved team’s creative achievement, but the impact of team members’ diversity was limited. It is confirmed that team members’ diversity indirectly improved team creativity mediated by perspective replacement through mediation analysis.

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  • Yasuto ISHITANI
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 134-139
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper provides detail on the micro-level processes in identity construction and strategic practice, using case studies of qualified dental technicians working at YAMAKIN Co., Ltd., which is a competitive company in the field of dental precious metal materials. Since 1995, the company has achieved first place in market share in the field of dental precious alloys for porcelain bonding for 23 consecutive years. To establish its continuing competitive edge in the field, the company has actively recruited qualified dental technicians as advisors and systematically implemented a pull business model, directly providing technical services to its end users, dentists and dental technicians. This study introduces Mead’s social self theory to analyze the interaction between identity construction and strategic practice in individuals and organizations. As a result, by hierarchically modeling the self dynamics of individuals and organizations, it was possible to relationally analyze the interaction between identity construction and strategic practice, both at the macro level of YAMAKIN Co., Ltd. and at the micro level of the individual dental technicians. However, there are limitations to the universal validity of the study, as it is a single case study with a high theoretical dependence on Mead’s social self theory.

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  • Shohei FUNATSU, Yasuo SUGIYAMA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 140-145
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This article conducts a case study concerning a role of universities and boundary between public and private science in university-industry collaboration (UIC) projects. The purpose of the study is to examine how the role and boundary are prescribed for creating collaborative innovation. We offer findings based on qualitative analysis of interviews and archival data on two UIC projects including pharmaceutical and medical equipment industries; First, clinical medicine has a significant role for progressing innovation process as the commons which involve various stakeholders, such as scientists, physicians, patients, lead users and related firms. Next, the role and boundary are defined emergently like “differentiation” and “morphogenesis.” It is a novel finding compared to existing studies like “preformation theory.”

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  • Hiromu ONOSE
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 146-151
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this paper is to clarify the effectiveness of management when it performs Zazen (seated Zen meditation). There are many opinions and theories about Zen. So in studies of management until now, although Zen may be dealt with or mentioned in some cases, it is rare to investigate the general tendency of relationship between Zen and management. This research compare a group that is performing Zazen at least once a year, versus a group that only experienced Zazen, across 1,426 samples. Results indicate that the group performing Zazen at least once a year felt the effect of Zazen more than the control group.

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  • Hayato OGURA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 152-158
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    It has been discussed for a long time, whether management is an art or a science. Henry Mintzberg has proposed the essential features important to managers, by using artists and scientists as metaphors (Mintzberg, 2004). However, scholars and practitioners frequently use this binary opposition based on their own stereotypes. There is little consensus on the constructs of an art or a science, because scholars have not investigated them. Therefore, the author investigates whether the different types of managers lean towards artists or scientists, through analyzing their own autograph texts. In this study, we use Doc2Vec, which is the method of Natural Language Process (NLP) to extract not surficial, but semantic features of texts written by artists, scientist and managers. The results show that most managers are scientist-type. Among them, successor CEOs, CEOs from inside the firms, headhunted CEOs are especially scientist-types, while founder CEOs are artist-types. Moreover, we find that managers who were educated longer are scientist-types and vice versa. Our findings have important implications for firms that need next CEOs or managers. In addition, our study widens possibilities of Doc2Vec to scholars for further application in fields on Management.

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  • Katsuhiko NAGASE
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 159-164
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The present studies examined the relationship between planning and performance. In study 1, 117 participants answered the questionnaire A and B, and other 102 participants answered the questionnaire B. Both participants took the same term exam. In study 2, 172 participants responded to the questionnaire C and took the term exam. There was no significant difference in the term scores between planners (participants who made a plan for the term exam) and non-planners (participants who did not make a plan for the term exam). There were positive correlations between the length of planned exam preparation hours and exam scores. Also, there was a weak positive correlation between the complexity of the exam preparation plans and exam scores. Previous studies on planning fallacy found that people frequently underestimate the length of time to complete a task. Accordingly, it was expected that participants who study less than planned hours would be significantly more than participants who study longer than planned hours. However only one of the three data set supported the hypothesis.

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  • Jun-ichi WATANABE
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 165-170
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this research is to study Human resource skill shift from molds to 3D printers in the digital technology's age. From the quantitative point, until now, new technologies have advanced and employment has expanded, but current technological innovation does not necessarily increase employment. From the qualitative point, the strength of Japan's "manufacturing" has been considered to be in the workforce capacity of the workplace, in 3D printer technologies it shifts to the design department. The source of value creation is changing to the ability of human resources to handle design software or the 3D printers.

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  • Munehiko ITOH, Yoichi MATSUMOTO
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 171-176
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Kanegafuchi Spinning was one of the largest spinning company in Japan during early 1900s. The authors utilize the archival collection of Kanebo to shed new light on Kanebo’s factory management system. From the company’s internal document, we describe how Kanebo recruited new employees, how high the mobility of workers was, and how the productivities of factories differ.

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  • Hideki KAKINUMA, Naoki WAKABAYASHI, Akiko YAMAMOTO
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 177-182
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The tourism and hospitality industry in Japan has been facing a serious problem with employee retention. Especially, retaining newcomers is considered to be crucial because of both development costs and the newcomers’ future prospects, which lead to service quality and its value, and hence to organizational performance. However, few studies have focused on how lodging facilities in Japan retain newcomers. We therefore analyzed the influence of organizational factors and HRM practices on the retention of new regular employees using secondary data collected from lodging facilities operated in Kyoto city. Using binomial logistic regression with bootstrapping, we found that the presentation of clear service strategies, and the avoidance of turnover culture by focusing on new-grad hiring are positively associated with the newcomers’ retention. Limitations of this study and future research directions are also considered.

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  • Makoto FUJIMURA, Kenta Hino
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 183-188
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this study is to investigate which factors influence the employees’ decision of voice or silence when facing a critical or an ethically problematic situation within their organizations. Following previous studies, we assumed four factors of employee silence motivation, Quiescent, Acquiescent, Prosocial, and Opportunistic and examined the relationship among the perception of psychological safety climate, these factors, and the behavior of voice and silence. To confirm assumed factor structure and to test the hypotheses about these relationships, we conducted a structural equation modeling using 204 participants from one governmental and four private organizations. The results indicated that the motivation of silence was explained by four factors and the perception of psychological safety climate decreased quiescent silence motivation and had a mediated impact on voice behavior. The acquiescent silence motivation was affected by the quiescent silence motivation and had a positive impact on silence behavior.

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  • Hiroaki MATSUSHITA, Masato FUJII, Yusuke TSUCHIYA, Shengnan WANG
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 189-195
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this paper, we examine the effects of psychological safety on employee creativity. We propose that the autonomous help-seeking of employee serves as a mechanism reflecting how psychological safety affect individual creativity. We further argue that these relationships are moderated by the help-seeking delay of employee. We developed a moderated-mediation model to test our hypotheses. The results suggest that (1) there is a positive relationship between psychological safety and employee creativity, (2) autonomous help-seeking of employee mediated the relationship between psychological safety and employee creativity, (3) the indirect effect of psychological safety on employee creativity (via autonomous help-seeking of employee) is weaker when the employee tend to delay in help-seeking. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

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  • Yasuo UNAKAMI
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 196-201
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this research is to explore factors that increase the satisfaction of elderly workers. Previous literatures only focus on the effect of skill succession concerning the interaction between elderly workers and young workers, but in this research, the author made a hypothesis that the frequency of communication with young workers affects the working satisfaction level of elderly workers.

    The research is made by ordinarily least squares models. The dependent variable is the working satisfaction level of elderly workers, obtained by the web-survey conducted by the JFCRI.

    As a result of the estimation (1), it turned out that the working satisfaction levels of elderly workers are influenced by abstract factors such as workplace environment / atmosphere rather than conditions such as salary, position, and workload.

    In order to measure whether workplace environment / atmosphere is good or bad, the author focused on intergenerational information exchange in company. In the estimation (2), the explanatory variables are the frequency of conversation. As a result, it turned out that the elderly workers who talked with young people almost every day got high satisfaction. Intergenerational information exchange is an effective way to motivate elderly workers in company.

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  • Yoshiaki TAKAO
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 202-208
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Research on job crafting has burgeoned lately. However, most previous studies have failed to notice that the concept was originally propounded for focusing on subjective change in experience of a job. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between job crafting and psychological ownership for the job as a concept representing the experience of a job. The results of a three-wave survey revealed that psychological ownership for the job (time 1) had positive impacts on all three dimensions of job crafting (time 2) and that only cognitive job crafting (time 2) was positively related to psychological ownership for the job (time 3) in turn. These findings contribute to the literature by suggesting that job crafting can be considered as a changing process of experience of a job by strengthening psychological ownership for the job.

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  • Toshio GOTO
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 209-215
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In response to the calls for the diversity and the longitudinal study of the family business, this empirical paper sheds light on Japanese family businesses managed but not owned by the family for 40 years or longer. Based upon the thorough analysis of all listed firms in Japan, the paper identifies 1,877 family businesses, accounting for 52.9% of all listed firms, with 113 firms managed but not owned by the family, of which 11 have been managed but not owned by the family for 40 years. Analysis of the 11 firms reveals the fact that the families have kept conscious and continuous efforts to maintain the family capital, especially the human and social capital, and that, through such efforts, they’ve prioritized non-financial values, such as employee satisfaction/satisfaction and social responsibility, while keeping a long-lasting relationship with stakeholders. The paper identifies family’s such a stakeholder-oriented approach as the major factor to be entrusted by the shareholders’ meeting and the board of the directors to manage the firms without ownership influence. The paper finds the theoretical background of such families’ legitimacy in Berle & Means (1932), who pioneered stakeholder approach, while proposing to critically reexamine Jensen & Meckling (1976).

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  • Yuki HAYASHI, Takayuki SAKAI, Jin-ichiro YAMADA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 216-221
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    It is expected that the inventions created by universities will bring about innovation and contribute to the economic growth of the country and various regions. However, it is difficult to claim from an international perspective that the industry-academia collaboration and technology transfers in Japan are doing enough in activating university research on societal and organizational levels. Through analysis of practice of our second author, who has 19 years of experience with industry-academia collaboration, we tried to elucidate in this research what sort of conditions need to be reached and what sort of technology transfer management needs to be in place for university technology transfers to be put on the market. The results of the analysis showed that the success or failure of university technology transfers being put on the market were greatly influenced by whether research development management was done after licensing on the industrialization process. On the other hand, it was also decided that there is another path (the “praying to god route”). In the future, to advance our country’s industry-academia collaboration and technology transfers, we need to organize the easier route and debate what the best practices are for taking technology transfers to market.

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  • Sachiko HATA, Yasuo SUGIYAMA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 222-227
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This research explores how entrepreneurs take defense mechanisms facing with possible risk of misappropriation of their own resources by established corporate “sharks” at the interfirm tie formations and during the relationships. Prior literatures have examined legal and timing defenses as well as social defenses in investment relationships. Conducting qualitative analysis based on interviews to entrepreneurs, we specified broader defense strategies including seven invisible defense mechanisms. We contribute to existing body of knowledge by showing the invisible defense mechanisms such as 'control of competitive state', 'resolution of information asymmetry', 'capability of idea execution', 'choice of composition' which seemingly cannot be seen as a defense mechanism.

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  • Nobuo TAKEDA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 228-233
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this article, in the "emotional industries" dealing with products and services purchased based on the preference of liking or disliking, it was considered both the oriental and the western as contrasting, high contextual culture influenced by the context and the influence of the context Understanding by applying the idea of low-context culture which does not receive to products and services. It was considered several cases in the game industry with the purpose of showing a strategy for a product strategy accepted in a diversity society with the world viewpoint rather than product creation that is accepted only in a homogeneous society like Japan.

    Discussion of premium value has been promoted mainly in the manufacturing industries, but commoditization can occur in software industry as well. And discussion has not been made sufficiently until now.

    In the case, discussions and conclusions are described examples of low context in the game industry, cases of high context, and case examples of creating high context by combining respective components which are low contexts.

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  • Takaaki NAKAYAMA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 234-239
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study investigates the boundary condition of the proposition “Inter-organizational transfers of human resources influence their achievements of knowledge-creating activities.” Based on a dataset of physicists, we analyzed the influence of inter-organizational transfers on in-group commitment. The analysis revealed that domestic transfer and in-group commitment have a strong positive correlation, and a weak negative correlation is seen between overseas transfer and in-group commitment. We found that inter-organizational transfer has a different effect depending on the society in which people participate. Our study suggests that the proposition that existing studies have presented might only be effective in highly mobile societies.

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  • Masahiko KAMEKURA, Hidekazu KURIMOTO
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 240-246
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Seto City faces a risk of depleting ‘rare’ and ‘valuable’ resource of raw materials of pottery related industries. The necessities to utilize limited resource urge city office to manage conflicting / concurrent values among interest groups such as industrial policy division, retail business promotion division, culture division, and so on. This research explores concepts and models to solve the problems by examining interorganizational (IOR) and coordination theories of economic organization and their brief history, which founds that the manner of managing values in IOR literatures changed from egoistic to altruistic, from controlling to coordinating. Newly arising 4 concepts resolving coordination problems are introduced: (1) ‘Communities of practice’ are groups of people to share concerns and problems and to deepen their knowledge and expertise. (2) ‘Responsible leadership’ is looking for stakeholder priorities, not only training but also measuring. (3) ‘Collective impact’ is based on the idea that social problems can be solved only by the coordinated efforts of those players such as (divisions within) city office and affiliates, business organizations, etc. (4) ‘Progettazione’ refers to the sustainable system developing creativity like Achille Castiglioni. Those concepts are integrated in the model developed implying a necessity of ‘resourcing space’ (Wiedner, et al., 2017).

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  • Hiroshi YASUDA
    2019 Volume 8 Issue 1 Pages 247-253
    Published: 2019
    Released: August 23, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The purpose of this study is to discuss and analyze firms’ organizational capabilities that lead alliances to success, namely the alliance management capabilities. Based on the principles underlying organizational learning theories, the study aims to understand and answer the questions of what alliance management capabilities are, how knowledge management contributes to building alliance management capabilities, and what mechanisms are required to activate knowledge management and enhance alliance management capabilities. Mechanisms are classified into four, which are functions, tools, processes and external networks, and the study analyzes how each of these four mechanisms influences the alliance management capabilities, using the data gained from a survey of 1,369 managers. The study finds that tools and processes strongly influence the enhancement of alliance management capabilities through the activation of knowledge management, while the effects of functions and external networks are limited. The study also clarified that alliance experience significantly advances alliance management capabilities, while it mitigates the relationship between knowledge management and alliance management capabilities. These findings imply that alliance experience and knowledge management are mutually substitutive in building alliance management capabilities, and firms with limited alliance experience can make up its handicap by implementing the strong knowledge management system in the organization.

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