In this paper, 2 types of particle beam cancer therapy were focused and a comparative analysis of the legitimation strategy of each diffusion process based on the theory of Social Shaping of Technology (SST) was conducted. As a result of analysis, an interdependent process of technology development - evaluation system - popularization, as defined in SST, the proton particle beam technology which is inferior to heavy particle beam technology in both efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the treatment acquired the validity almost equivalent to the heavy particle beam technology and spread in Japan. The heavy particle beam technology has diffused to foreign countries with the legitimacy to acquire foreign currencies by the policy of different agents, that is government cabinet. Both technologies can be regarded as similar technologies, but their diffusion processes have been different. In general, new medical technologies gain legitimacy and diffuse under established evaluation systems, and competing technologies are eliminated. This paper shows that it is not necessarily eliminated from the market only by the technical effectiveness superiority of object presence, and that both technologies diffused to the market by multifunctional interaction with various legitimations.
The effective utilization of existing technologies process in small and medium-sized enterprises was analyzed from the viewpoint of recombinant capabilities, taking the case of companies participating in the aircraft-related materials research group sponsored by Gifu Prefecture, Japan. SMEs with limited resources need to be efficient at improving existing technologies and reuse when stimulated by external knowledge. In addition, it is worth proceeding to the re-creation of new technologies and existing technologies, which are expensive. In an environment successfully achieving this recombination of technology, the agent realizing the recombination is people. As a consequence, staff members at SMEs do not need to have the skills of strategic staff that are expected in large companies. Alternate functions act on the unique internal processes, which affect the quality of the recombination results.
Sometimes employees engage in silence and withhold their ideas, information, and opinions.On one hand, an important issue in employee silence research is the phenomenon that cannot be speaking up because of socially and organizationally oppression. On the other hand, employee silence about their daily work in the workplace stems from fears of isolation, concerns about their negative effects on their image, reputation, and motivation to think that speaking up to managers will not improve a situation. However, some existing studies suggest that employee silence is not necessarily harmful to workplaces or individuals, such as prosocial silence and cooperative silence. Thus, the premise of this research is that employee silence has pros and cons in the workplace and employees. In this study, I first suggest a definition of employee silence and voice and then review trends in employee silence research. Existing research has lacked debate on the effectiveness of silence. Therefore, this study focuses on prosocial silence and cooperative silence that are effective for workplaces and managers. In particular, this study focuses on how manager expectations affect employee silence. To answer this research question, I will make qualitative research using the concept of pluralistic ignorance for future research.
What are the institutional works that maintain institutionalized practices, while transforming institutionalized practices. This study investigates the history of the regulation of illegal production of unfiltered sake in Akita Prefecture to explore these questions. This study argue that the institutional works which reduce the visibility of the practice, maintain the norm and cognitive basis of the practice, and search the new material basis of the practice preserve the institutionalized practice, while making practice an underground practice, separating the regulatory basis of practice from its norm and cognitive basis, and diversifying the material basis of practice.
Companies use scientific knowledge generated by universities in technology and product development (Agrawal and Henderson, 2002; Cohen, Nelson and Walsh, 2002). On the other hand, it has been reported that there is a virtuous cycle (Zucker and Darby, 2007) in which collaborative research improves the research performance of universities, but the specific mechanism has not been clarified. In this report, the joint research between Keio University and the university-based venture company Spiber was taken up as an example. As a result of the joint research program, excellent academic papers and databases were created, and material development of innovative materials was realized. The following three factors can produce results in joint research involving industry and academia. The first factor is to acquire the information necessary for commercialization and embody the technical issues, and to establish research topics that are compatible with technical issues. The second factor is to separate deliverables published as papers and deliverables patented by companies. The third factor is that companies send professional human resources to university research.
This is the age of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, and rapid digitization is bringing about tremendous changes in our society and business. In particular, new technologies such as IoT (Internet of Things), Big Data, and AI (Artificial Intelligence) are evolving with tremendous momentum, and companies are required to drastically transform their businesses themselves by utilizing digital technologies. This is called "Digital Transformation (DX)", and it is essential to transform corporate management through the reform of corporate IT departments. DX is progressing overseas like this, but, is Japanese companies able to cope with this change? And if not, what kind of change should we make in the future? In this research, in the global management environment where digital transformation is progressing, we focused on the corporate IT department, and surveyed on problem recognition and organizational reform of each company, and analyzed the tendency. In Japan, Ambidexterity's theory is too biased toward "exploitaion", and has not been able to shift to "exploration". Especially, Japanese don’t like change and have slow organizational decisions. Therefore, IT department and the digitalization department should be separated first. And, cluster analysis proved that the involvement of top management to DX departments contributed to the progress of DX.
Since 2015, multiple fuel economy frauds have been uncovered in the automotive industry. In the Japanese automobile industry, improving fuel efficiency has become one of the strategies in promoting economic measures in addition to addressing environmental issues. Corruption has been normalized for a long time at several companies. It is said that corruption in Mitsubishi Motors, one of the corrupt companies, has been going on for a long time since the 1990s, and in the face of scarce resources and tight deadlines, corruption was institutionalized and rationalized in the development sector. Some voiced improvements, but they were not enough to overturn socialization. The complexity of fuel economy tests and fuel efficiency is considered to be excessively required as a competitive index. Improvements in accordance with external rules have failed to gain legitimacy within the organization, which has chosen to continue fuel economy frauds. This is a problem that could occur not only in Mitsubishi Motors but also in other companies and other industries, and further research is necessary.
Prior researches on groupthink found out that group discussion is not always productive. The present study examined the effects of discussion on planning and performance. In study 1, 62 participants (31 dyads) answered questionnaire A, and the other 68 participants (34 dyads) answered questionnaire B. Participants answered Q1, then discussed with each other, and answered Q2. Study 2 was held one week later with 197 participants, including most of the participants of study 1. They took the term exam and answered the same questionnaire. Statistical analysis revealed that planned study hours for the exam became significantly longer after the discussion. It implies that discussion with other person boosts people's motivation to strive toward the goal. On the other hand, the test scores of discussed participants were not significantly different from those of non-discussed participants. The effect of discussion seems weak. Participants with a specific goal got better scores than participants with an abstract goal. Although there was not a significant difference, this outcome is consistent with the prediction of the goal-setting theory. Participants of the friend-dyad got better scores than participants of the stranger-dyad. However, the validity of this outcome is limited because the dyad formation was not strictly random.
This study aims to analyze how sake industry has received intense pressure from institution and how they have acquired organizational legitimacy and have had a decision-making against pressure from institution based on institutional theory. Since sake industry is a typical tax industry, they suffer from strong pressure of coercive isomorphism. This study reveals sake industry has changed a form of pressure from coercive isomorphism to normative isomorphism by making a variety of networks and making a spontaneous decision due to coping with intense pressure of coercive isomorphism in history. In previous times, sake industry was simply local industry which met the regional demand. However, they have shifted local industry to industry which they export their products to outside of their local region because decision making of sake manufactures in sake industry started to suffer from intense normative isomorphism.
This paper presents a conceptual model which concerns the relationship between personal level anxiety, kaizen behavior and kaizen performance. Previous literature on kaizen mostly discuss the association between its performance and organization level and strategic factors and often overlook the individual level factors such as traits and behaviors. In order to fill this gap, this paper concerns the individual factors especially focusing on personal level anxiety as one of the important determinants for successful kaizen implementation.
Externalization to tacit to explicit knowledge is achieved by the sequential use of metaphor, analogy, and model (Nonaka, 1994; Nonaka & Takeuchi, 1995). In the context of product development, the externalization with an existential metaphor is a simple process, while that with a subjective metaphor is a complex process in which individuals involved in development are required to make a lot of decisions with their own intentions. This study argues the externalization with a subjective metaphor, and points out that its complex process needs a developer to interpret explicit knowledge produced from the subjective metaphor.
This study explored what factors influence on, or covary with perspective diversity through the questionnaire survey of business planners who were engaged in projects regarding new business, products, or services (n=400). The results revealed that perspective diversity was influenced by diversity of team members in the dimension of required skills and demographics. The diversity of representation used for communication, diversity of thinking styles (e.g., analogical thinking), and diversity of contacts outside team covaried with perspective diversity. It is suggested that diversity of team member indirectly increased perspective diversity mediated by diversity of contacts outside team.
In platform-based markets, the platforms construct ecosystems with various complementors and consumers. In the platform ecosystems, outside complementors with potential unlimited resources could emerge innovation with the platform technologies. The purpose of this study is to test significance of delivery services for innovation management in the E-commerce platform ecosystems. The author conducted questionnaire survey for approximately 2,000 of Japanese E-commerce consumers and also statistically analyzed the acquired data. The results showed that the specific consumer group, which had high sensitivity for product innovation in the ecosystem as the buyer, was largely influenced by quality of delivery services on the platform.
Despite growing global diffusions of research managers and administrators (RMAs) in the higher education sector, both scholars and RMAs themselves have not reached a concrete definition and common expertise of RMAs yet. This conceptual mess partly comes from the RMAs development process: Most of RMAs cultivated their careers themselves. This paper introduces a theoretical framework from management innovation theories and attempts to classify RMAs for the identification of their expertise and to explain the diversified adoption process from a unified perspective. We conducted interview surveys for 11 RMAs in two public research universities in the U.K. and the U.S. We found avoidance of conflicts with traditional faculty roles is an essential factor of the adoption of RMAs who play a strategic role or correspond to tasks of research project management. Exceptionally, some information systems provide functions that slightly conflict with faculty roles; however, palpable their outcomes seem to overcome the rejection. Our explanatory analysis confirmed that the management innovation theory framework well explains the adoption process of RMAs, and thus, we can lead a further discussion based on this theoretical framework.
The purpose of this paper is to deal with the mechanisms of leader’s progressively learning and mastering about servant leadership. On the one hand, servant leadership is positioned as a major field of research for leadership scholars, on the other hand, little is known about servant leadership making process, specifically, the point of influences from followers to servant leader via leader-follower interaction. For addressing this problem, this paper focuses on leader’s independent/proactive acceptance in leader-follower dynamic interaction through servant leadership making process. This paper uses a case of Japanese seafood processing company, Papua New Guinean Seafood Company (P Company). P Company is a case about the leader (factory manager) transforming one’s leadership behaviors and believes from authoritarian leadership to servant leadership in the process of organizational change and workplace reform aimed at friendly working condition. This case study research shows the importance of analysis of interaction between independent leader and followers, and has implications for researchers interested in better understanding the social interaction in causal relatonship of servant leadership. In addition, this study has implications for practitioners concerned with introducing and realizing servant leadership, by indicating psychological, social, and organizational benefits for servant leader.
The purpose of this presentation is to clarify how competitive advantage changes by realizing dominant technology through selection of new technology in technological development phase. According to previous studies, it is important to select new technology that are expected to have high physical performance and market preferences, which occur in parallel with the development of existing technologies. And it is difficult to select new technology because of organizational culture and knowledge accumulation. However, despite that decision largely affecting the competitive advantage, the process is not well-mentioned. Therefore, I considered the selection process of new technology by case study of blue LED development of Toyoda Gosei and Nichia. As a result, I present the hypothesis that competitive development status foresights influence the process of new technology selection.
The current study examined the effects of emotional state on learning and creativity using a Q-learning computation model. The results revealed that mood and mood biases (as emotional states) exerted various effects on divergent and convergent thinking (as creative thinking types) and exploitation and exploration (as learning behaviors). Mood exerted negative effects on convergent thinking and exploitation. Mood biases were negatively related to divergent thinking and positively related to exploration. Overall, emotional states significantly affected both learning and creativity, although the specific effects differed across learning and creativity. The results suggested that emotional momentum is required to provide impetus for further exploration. In contrast, divergent and convergent thinking and exploitation do not depend on emotional momentum. Instead, they were negatively related to mood or mood biases, implying that more objective emotional states were preferred. Thus, emotional states provided momentum for facilitating exploration as learning, but exploitation and creative thinking did not rely on emotional momentum.
Coopetition has become increasingly important for firms not only to pursue competitive advantage on their own, but to create and capture value in collaborate with other firms, also with competing firms. The purpose of this study is to investigate how coopetition-based business models affect the sustainable relationship between competition and coopetition. In this study, we clarified when and how firms had changed the business model and what the driver will be, as hypotheses for future research. For gaining insights, we present a longitudinal single case study of Yahoo! News (Japan), as coopetition-based business model that competing firms had participated and designed in collaboration. We suggest four hypotheses for managing sustainable relationship of coopetition based on the notion of business models：(1)the sustainable relationship of coopetition is managed when each firm has unique resources and the imitation barrier of that resources is high, (2)the coopetition-based business model innovation is adopted caused of tension based on the coopetition, (3)the coopetition-based business model innovation is adopted when it mitigate tension, (4)the unique resource transformation between the firm affect the coopetition-based business model innovation. By explain these hypotheses, our study contributes to the previous literature and future research.
It is argued that the IT strategy should be aligned with the business strategy. However, the business strategy and IT strategy differ from its component elements that need to be aligned by each strategy. Whenever these component elements cannot be properly adjusted during an implementation project of enterprise information system, a problem named as “the Torsion Structure” problem that caused inconsistency is easy to be triggered. This study proposed “the Torsion Structure Model between Business Strategy and IT Strategy”. This theoretical model focus on the structural factors that are likely to delay the delivery date of the enterprise information system implementation project. Based on this model, the validity and effectiveness of this model will be verified by examining the factors that achieve or miss the planned delivery date of the enterprise information system implementation project through multiple case studies.
The purpose of this research is to discuss new role of corporate R&D in theera of open innovation. From 1990’s many companies have started to reduce their investment in corporate R&D and seek for new ideas outside the company. In contrast, Hitachi has restructured their corporate R&D in 2011 and 2015 to strongly enhance the capability to collaborate with universities and research institutions. This paper clarifies key success factors for corporate R&Ds to acquire the collaboration capability and promote open innovation, through the analysis of Hitachi’s reorganization process.
This paper introduces the concept of identity capital and derives a framework for the creation of identity and strategy by entrepreneurs. Identity capital consists of the various cognitive skills that individuals use to form their identities. Before founding businesses, entrepreneurs leverage their cognitive skills based on the tangible and intangible sources that they possess to create identities that are “their ideal selves.” Entrepreneurs create strategies by continually projecting these identities onto the core strategies of the organizations they establish as “how we wish things to be.” When this happens, the entrepreneurs’ identity capital as a resource influences the content of the core strategy. Entrepreneurs create the core strategy and simultaneously draw up the deployment strategy plans to bring the core strategy into fruition. Then, when the people in the organization put the deployment strategies into practice, the activation influences the creation of the organizational identity. Therefore, entrepreneurs’ identity capital encourages entrepreneurs to design strategies in a way that creates a mutual correlation between identity and strategy.
Longevity is central to family-business research, and the factors involved in sustaining firm vitality continue to receive growing attention. This empirical paper focuses longitudinally on Swiss century-old firms and their familial influence, important but relatively untouched subjects in the literature, and addresses firm longevity from new perspectives to respond to the paucity of research, including that of its family influence definition, its heterogeneity, and longitudinal research. Utilizing the proprietary database prepared by the author, the paper identifies 1,747 century-old firms. While majority of them are family firms, only 38% remain solely with the founding family and the rest experienced family transfer(s). This contrasts sharply with Japan, where very few of family firms experienced family transfer. This study contributes to the literature in four ways. First, it presents for the first time a bird's-eye view of Swiss century-old firms and their familial influence. Second, it brings a new perspective of the familial influence on the firm and presents a platform for the global comparative study of the century-old family firms. Third, it sheds light on the familial transfer(s) to examine the impacts of the transfer on both financial and nonfinancial performance.
Competitive Advantage has long been taken granted for commonly sustainable and should be always pursued in organization and management research discipline. But due to the ecology characteristics, organizations always suffer outside uncertain attacks (innovation or imitation) from environment and competitors, as well as the destiny of lifecycle process changes (evolution/revolution) also cognitive bias from inside structure and system. Researches in organization management witnessed the extensive application of Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (Eldredge and Gould, 1972) from the 1980s’ and deepened from 1990s’ with Hypercompetition Theory (D’Aveni, 1994) and Schumpeterian Creative Destruction thoughts (Schumpeter, 1942). This study fills the gap of competitive advantage research by: (1) defining and classifying the 4 distinctive types named as MCA (Marginal Competitive Advantage), TCA (Temporary Competitive Advantage), PCA (Punctuated Competitive Advantage), and SCA (Sustainable Competitive Advantage); (2) explicating the 4 characteristics named as Hierarchy, Complexity, Dynamics and Integration; (3) illustrating the mechanism of organizational change named as Epistemological and Behavioral Mechanism; (4) clarifying the 5 influence roots named as Path-dependency, Routine-locked, Isolating-mechanism, Causal ambiguity, History-accumulated, and Social complexity; (5) demonstrating the analysis framework named as Dynamic evolution, Ambidextrous management, Imicreative revolution, Integrative thinking, and Competitive lifecycle; and (6) interpreting the 15 countervailing powers and methods.
As research attention began to shift toward the regional strategy, previous studies have focused on how does regional level organization structure facilitate the regional strategy. An important prerequisite which is missing, we believe, is an empirical check whether and when regional headquarters (RHQs) promote the regional strategies or not. In this study, we use data on the Japanese multinational manufacture corporations and their oversea subsidiaries including regional headquarters to test this question. In particular, we are interested in the relationship between the establishment of RHQs and the performance of subsidiaries associated with this headquarter, and when RHQs can improve the performance of subsidiaries. The result shows that, although RHQs do not positively affect subsidiaries’ performance in all regions, RHQs in EU do have a positive and significantly impact on the performance of subsidiaries in the region. One could infer this strong positively effects generate when the regional strategy is highly demanded, due to the high degree of regional economic integration.
There have been many studies about Top Management Team, examining the relationship between structure, attribute of TMT and performance, and the relationship between growth process and TMT. On the other hand, in an industry that needs a long time and high-level expertise before performance is triggered, it is assumed that performance, growth process, and the structure of TMT are significantly different from those of general venture companies. In this paper, we conducted an empirical analysis of the relationship between TMT structure and performance (especially exit strategies) by using questionnaire survey data of 167 bio venture companies with such high-level expertise. As a result, it became clear that adding a person with doctoral degree to TMT would hinder EXIT. It was also partially supported that adding a person with experience working at company to TMT would encourage EXIT.
Entrepreneurial ecosystems are combinations of social, political, economic, and cultural elements in a particular region that support the development and growth of innovative startups (Spigel, 2017). Examples that have been studied focus on regions that have abundant resources such as population, funding and research institutes (Mack & Mayer, 2016; Saxenian, 1994; Spigel, 2017), and the prerequisites for the birth of an entrepreneurial ecosystem has long been regarded as having abundant resources (Mason & Brown, 2014). Therefore, in this study, in order to clarify whether prerequisites are necessary for the birth of an ecosystem, a comparative analysis is illustrated with two cities, Fukuoka City and Tsuruoka City, which are assumed to have contrasting resources and environments. Although both Fukuoka and Tsuruoka are attracting attention as entrepreneurial ecosystems, their birth processes are very different. This paper clarifies the differences between the birth and development processes of the two ecosystems. Then, we will clarify how Tsuruoka City, a region with limited resources, gave birth to an entrepreneurial ecosystem.
Large incumbent companies have become increasingly involved in entrepreneurial ecosystems and alliances with startups have increased in recent years. However, though there are not a few studies from the perspective of incumbent companies, we have relatively few of them from the viewpoint of startups. We explored how startups select incumbent companies as partners in collaboration and alliances. We chose qualitative method to answer the above exploratory questions. We collected data through interviews with 41 startups and analyzed the data using thematic qualitative text analysis. From the perspective of entrepreneurial behavior in an alliance and of entrepreneur as individual with emotions, we discuss that the choices were greatly influenced by the factors such as target companies’ enthusiasm, organizational readiness, and acceptance of change (preparedness), and equality in partnerships, and understanding startups situation (dignity). We conceptualized selection criteria with highlighting the social and psychological aspects of entrepreneurs, whereas previous studies indicated resource and knowledge-based factors such as similarities in knowledge bases and complementarities of resources and skills, as well as the prominence of partner companies.
In this paper, we present a formal analysis of governance mechanisms in role-differentiated organizations where the responsibilities to conduct specialized tasks and those to coordinate those efforts into organizational outcomes are separated and taken by different actors such as coordination managers and specialist workers. We developed a game-theoretical model that has three actors; specialist workers, coordination managers, and project owners. The model analysis showed that optimal incentive structure could not be uniquely specified and that who to implement incentive distribution among those actors influenced each workers’ and managers’ decisions to make efforts. These results implied the importance of governance mechanisms within organizations that differentiated specialization and coordination.
This research investigated how customer service employees’ positive and negative emotions affect their task performance and contribute to the success of the organizations. The author conveyed a survey and distributed approximately a total of 1,000 five-point Likert typed questionnaires to flight attendants working for a European airline as well as an Asian airline and received 827 valid responses. The author presented the descriptive statistics and then examined some relationships using the structural equation model to test the hypotheses. The findings include that affective delivery, which refers to an act of expressing socially desired emotions, functions as a mediator, converting the negative path coefficient between role conflicts and job performance to a positive one. In conclusion, employees’ display of positive emotions functions as a mediator even in workplaces, where role conflict may be perceived. Therefore, the practice of positive emotion to recover the declining propensity of task performance prevent employees from the risk of emotional exhaustion, promote customer satisfaction, and contribute to gain customer loyalty.
This paper elucidates how feedback from users and customers are leveraged to innovation of a medical service, and how the business ecosystem emerges to create its stakeholders’ value. They include patients, families, doctors, nurses and municipalities as well as service providers. Although affluent extant literature has been interested in articulating these systems, they have mainly focused on the process of emergence, functionality, the complementarity and modularity that are crucial to value creation, especially in the IT industry. In those contexts, a focal firm as Google, Amazon etc. encourages software companies and suppliers to collaborate with each other. Then, when it comes to medical services, will a provider function as the focal firm? And, if they are an entrepreneurial company, how can it coordinate with users and customers to lead to innovation? We conducted interviews in Denmark and Japan to study the structure of the ecosystem and the process of its emergence. The case study illustrates how the independent stakeholders would collaborate for value of creation, and an intermediary organization can strategically link them in the ecosystem. The implication is that forming of the ecosystem may lead to promoting healthcare innovation and related policies.
Resolving the problem of the regional railway deficit is a social issue that will have a significant impact on Japanese local economics in the future. Nowadays, lots of Japanese regional railway companies are falling into deficit. So far, most studies of regional railway companies in Japan focus on just a specific field of measure, and the main approach of the measure has been focused on “contribution to profits”. However, there are some phenomena that cannot be explained by the approach said above in Takamatsu-Kotohira Electric Railroad, Wakayama Electric Railway, and Isumi Railway, which are the few companies that have succeeded in significantly improving profits.This study will additionally propose that a new useful point of view for analyzing the mechanism of getting out of the red in regional railway business with subjects that suggest their effectiveness. The proposal point of view in this study is expressed by the point of view that focused on "multiple measures and their execution order" and "each measure’s feasibility" when they are in comparison with the existing point of view.
In this study, we investigate the process of double-loop learning for individual leaders who have black box based on the theory-in-use. The criteria for identifying the tendency of double-loop learning were set for 14 leaders and their followers who formed the theory-in-use through workshop at Food Company Z, and analyzed by comparative case studies. It was found that leaders with a tendency to double-loop learning broadened their prediction range through constructive dialogue and revised their theory-in-use.
The authors discuss what criterion should be applied to evaluate the quality of research papers. Some papers are praised for their rigorousness or accuracy, while others are praised for their creativity or originality. To make a meaningful discussion about the criterion to apply normatively, we develop two mathematical models to illustrate the methods researchers use to evaluate the qualities of papers. Perfect-model places more significance on rigorousness or accuracy of papers, while Hot-model places more emphasis on creativity or originality. Through examining these models, we hypothesize a relationship between the criterion researchers apply and the effects of academic contribution to socio-democratic impacts or the soundness of academic community and its development. Finally, the implications for both building a sound and intellectually, active, academic community and accumulating knowledge in the foremost caveat of valuable scholarly and social progress are introduced.