A survey was made by the Osaka Medical Association, Osaka, of symptom prevelance in all primary school children in Osaka prefecture 3 times, ie, in 1971, 1973 and 1975. The samples consisted of 609, 190-729, 048 children at 719-848 schools. The average annual levels of pollution with sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide were estimated for each school, to study their correlations with symptom prevalence; and the following were found: 1) The prevalence of such symptoms as eye irritation, sore throat, cough was more closely correlated with the level of nitrogen oxide from stationary sources than with that of sulfur dioxide. This fact may be considered attributable to the phenomenon that because the pollution with sulfur dioxide has decreased in recent years, the significance of sulfur dioxide as an index to the degree of air pollution has been reduced. 2) The partial correlation coefficients showed that, out of the levels of nitrogen oxide, those due to mobile source were correlated with the prevalence of such symptoms as likelihood to sneeze (p<0.001), the presence of stridor, eye irritation (p<0.01) in particular. 3) The prevalence of the above-mentioned symptoms was increased in the central part of Osaka city where there is heavy automobile traffic at each survey. 4) The regression equation of the level of nitrogen oxide as an index to pollution and symptom prevalence was estimated for 79 primary schools located in the districts where the average annual estimated level of nitrogen oxide was in the range of from 0.002-0.039 ppm. There was a correlation (p<0.05) between the level of pollution and the prevalence of such symptoms as eye irritation, sore throat, cough in the districts where the average annual estimated level of nitrogen dioxide was about 0.015 (0.013-0.017) ppm and over.
In our previous paper, authors reported the effect of carbon monoxide on photochemical reaction of nitric oxides-hydrocarbon-air system. And then photochemical reaction of nitric oxides-carbon monoxide-air mixtures has been revealed in this paper. As a result it was confirmed that this reaction system was influenced by initial CO concentration, light intensity, temperature and humidity. Our experimental data showed good agreement with computer simulation by J. G. Calvert et al. Carbon monoxide cannot be neglected in photochemical reactions when CO concentration is high and hydrocarbon is neglisible.
According to Taylor's theory, plume width is estimated from the standard deviation of integrated horizontal and vertical components of wind speed. Estimated crosswind width of plume by this method and other five methods are compared with the values measured at the Kawaguchi Tower between 250 and 6, 000 m downwind distance from the source. The source height of the diffusion experiment is 45 or 313 m and sampling duration is 20 or 30 minutes. In the unstable and neutral conditions the maximum correlation is obtained between the values estimated by present method and measured values. In this method, mean of ratios of the estimated values to measured ones is 1.04, and the deviation of estimated values from measured values is minimum. In other five method, mean value of the ratios are as follows: Singer and Smith's: 1.20, Singer, Frizzola and Smith's: 1.44, Yamamoto and Yokoyama's: 1.52, Pasquill, Gifford and Slade's: 0.63, and Pasquill and Gifford's 0.64. In stable conditions, because of large vertical shear of wind speeds, the estimated values derived from wind at source height are smaller than measured values, and the ratio of estimated and measured values is in inverse proportion to vertical shear of wind speeds.
The ground level concentration of pollutants downwind of a tall chimney decreases as the effective stack height increases. In order to estimate downwind concentrations resulting from the emission of a gaseous stack effluent, the effective stack height must be known. The effective stack height is the actual height plus the rise of the plume due to momentum and buoyancy of the effluent. Many equations to predict plume rise from stack and meteorogical parameters have been proposed, but none is uniformly accepted. In this paper, 367 plume rise observations were used to test the ability of twenty-six of the published and commonly used equations to predict plume rise, and calculated plume rise values were compared with observed values. As the results, most equations overestimated plume rise in low wind speed, but the CONCAWE and the optimized CONCAWE equations gave the best fit with observed plume rise.
It is thought that chemical components in rain water depend upon wind direction and generating situations of aerosols and gases. In order to elucidate the problem, the correlations among chemical component in rain water are obtained by analyzing the matrix method of correlation concentration. It is a technique of comparing the ratio of the componental concentration of a sample with the equivalent ratios of other samples. High correlation numbers were obtained among the sampling situations in the west of Kanto district. The conclution was assumed the factories in the Tokyo-Yokohama area generated a great deal of aerosols and gases and they moved to the west of the Kanto district. This agreed with the assumption based on the measurement of the wind direction.
In order to study in detail the area dependency of the concentrations of various trace elements in the atmosphere over Osaka district, simultaneous measurements of them were made at thirty stations by the use of instrumental neutron activation analysis and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. From the measured average concentrations in four weeks, the concentration variation over the area was studied by calculating the coefficients of variation for 31 elements. Variation coefficients for the elements, Ba, Hf, Ta, Ag, Cd, Zn, Se, Sb, W and Cr, were relatively large. Against this, those for the elements, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Sc, V, Br, Th, Pb, Al, Lu, Ti and As, were relatively small. In order to study the relationships among concentrations of various elements, linear correlation coefficients were computed between all possible pairs of elements including dust concentration. The values of the obtained coefficients ranged from nearly zero to 0.97. Correlation coefficients for La-Ce, Ce-Sm, Fe-Co, Zn-Pb, Fe-Zn, Rb-Cs and so on were very large, while those for Al-Ag, Al-Cd, Ba-Ta, V-Ag, Al-Ta, Ba-Ta and so on were very small. It appears that a study of the distributions of various elements over an industrial area and the correlations among them may give information about the major sources and the atmospheric behaviors of the elements in question.