東南アジア研究
Online ISSN : 2424-1377
Print ISSN : 0563-8682
ISSN-L : 0563-8682
34 巻 , 2 号
選択された号の論文の10件中1~10を表示しています
論文
  • ――もうひとつのインドネシア史研究を目指して――
    大木 昌
    1996 年 34 巻 2 号 p. 339-369
    発行日: 1996/09/30
    公開日: 2018/01/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    This is an attempt to call attention to the history of disease and healing (or, simply, medical history) as an alternative approach to Indonesian history. Though this aspect of history has been studied very little, it is important and useful for the better understanding of history from broader perspectives. To begin with, disease (implicitly including death) and healing may have been the primary concern of the majority of people. Thus, it may be important to know what diseases people suffered from, how diseases were perceived, and what kinds of healing methods were applied at specific historical times. These issues are relevant to many other aspects, such as living conditions, the natural environment, demographic structure, and so forth. On the other hand, change in the healing system may occur with the introduction of a new religion and the acceptance of new medicine (e. g., Islamic and Western medicines). In political and economic history, the health and the size of the population were decisive factors of economic force and state power. Economic development might improve health conditions through improved nutrition, but the increase of population density and the development of transportation provided favorable conditions for the spread of diseases.
     Keeping these perspectives in mind, we will first see what kinds of diseases were prevalent in Indonesia, particularly Java and Sumatra. In describing this, I will try to relate certain diseases to social and economic conditions of the time concerned. Next, I will describe healing practice. Finally I will examine the use of herbal medicines in Java in the 1870s and around the beginning of the twentieth century.
  • 大野 徹
    1996 年 34 巻 2 号 p. 370-386
    発行日: 1996/09/30
    公開日: 2018/01/31
    ジャーナル フリー

    When Nai Pan Hla came to Japan in 1988 as a research fellow of Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University, he brought with him numerous copies of Mon documents dealing with the Dhammathat code of laws, inscriptions by King Kyansittha and other monarchs in Mon, histories of Dvaravati, Hanthawaddy and Dhammazedi, Mon songs and folktales and so forth. When he left Kyoto, he gave me several documents dealing with Mon linguistics and Mon literature.
     Among these papers I found two hand-written copies of a Mon version of the Rama story. The first copy is composed of 190 pages, all in verse and transcribed from an original palm-leaf manuscript preserved in the Bernard Free Library, Rangoon, Burma, several decades ago. The second was brought from Lopburi, Thailand, to Burma by a Mon citizen named Mahaphun in 1950. It is composed of 372 pages, also all in verse. According to the preface of the original palm-leaf manuscripts, both were written in 1834 by a Buddhist monk named Uttamu. In content, the two copies were found to be identical, and it is evident that they derive from the same original. The title of the Mon Rama story is given as “Loik Samoing Ram.”
     At the 12th International Ramayana Conference held at Kern Institute, Leiden University, Holland, in August 1995,I introduced the general structure and order of arrangement of the Mon Rama story. Here, I shall present the salient features of the Mon Rama story in comparison with Vālmīki Rāmāyana, Non-Vālmīki Rāmāyanas, and other local versions of the Rama story prevalent in Southeast Asia.
     Comparative study with other versions of Rāmāyana revealed the following noteworthy points in the Mon Rama story. (1) The story begins with Uttara Kāṇḍa, (2) Ram (Ramā) is described as having previously been a Bodhisattva (Future Buddha), (3) Soite (Sītā) is the incarnation of Indra's consort, Wunjeta, (4) Bali (Vāli) is the son of the Sun God, and Soingrid (Sugrīva) is the son of the Moon God, (5) Paddama Devi (Maṇḍodarī) springs from a big lotus flower, (6) the story includes the pre-matrimonial love of Ram and Soite, (7) Totsagri (Rāvaṇa) attends the archery contest, (8) Ram is exiled for twelve years instead of fourteen years as stated in Vālmīki Rāmāyana, (9) Soite changes into a female ape and becomes pregnant with Anuman (Hanumān), (10) the sister of Bali and Soingrid, Swaha, is the real mother who gave birth to Anuman, (11) Sammanukot (Śūrpaṇakhā) is related to Khara and Dūṣaṇa as mother and her children, (12) Sammanukot transforms herself into a golden hind, (13) the blood pouring out of the cave after the duel between Bali and a buffalo changes color from dark to light. The buffalo's blood is in fact diluted by rain, (14) a gigantic crab destroys the foundation of a causeway, (15) Suponnakha, the daughter of Pipek (Vibhīṣaṇa), transforms herself into the dead body of Soite, (16) Lekkhana (Lakṣmaṇa) does not behold Soite's face for three years, (17) Soite drawas a portrait of Totsagri (Daśagrīva) and is exiled from Ram's palace, (18) Soite delivers a son, Ni Kwe. His replica, Ni Choa, is miraculously created by a hermit, (19) King Ram fights with his two sons, (20) Ram and Soite are reunited, (21) Soite, Ongkhut (Aṇgada) and Inda Reje (Indrajit) are mentioned as siblings each other, since Paddama Devi, Totsagri's wife, gave birth to them (two sons and one daughter).
     It is evident that Loik Samoing Ram derives directly from the Burmese version of the Rama story,

    (View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)

  • James Chin
    1996 年 34 巻 2 号 p. 387-401
    発行日: 1996/09/30
    公開日: 2018/01/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    The Democratic Action Party (DAP) is arguably Malaysia's best known opposition party. The party has been in opposition since the formation of the Federation of Malaysia in 1963. Although it has consistently won a significant percentage of votes at general elections, it has never been able to win enough seats to form a government, either at the federal or state levels.
     The voting pattern for the DAP in Peninsular Malaysia is marked by two features. First, most of its votes come from the non-Malay population, i. e. from the Malaysian Chinese and Indian voters. Secondly, it regularly outperforms, in terms of number of votes, the Chinese-based parties in the ruling Barisan Nasional (BN) or National Front coalition—Gerakan Rakyat Malaysia (Malaysian People's Movement) and the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA).
     Whatever successes the DAP enjoys in Peninsular Malaysia is not repeated in the East Malaysian States of Sabah and Sarawak, situated on the island of Borneo and divided from the Peninsular by the South China Sea. Although both states have elected several DAP candidates to the federal parliament, they are defeated at successive state elections held in the two Bornean states. This article looks at the reasons behind this phenomenon by examining DAP's performance in Sarawak since its foundation.
  • Lily Kong, Brenda S. A. Yeoh
    1996 年 34 巻 2 号 p. 402-423
    発行日: 1996/09/30
    公開日: 2018/01/31
    ジャーナル フリー
  • Sukristijono Sukardjo
    1996 年 34 巻 2 号 p. 424-432
    発行日: 1996/09/30
    公開日: 2018/01/31
    ジャーナル フリー
    Components of litterfall were measured for one year (January to December 1985) at five sites in the Rhizophora mucronata Lamarck plantation at Tritih, in the Rawa Timur forest district, Cilacap. The annual litterfall (t ha-1) was 8.193–8.236 in medium R. mucronata stands, 10.395 in a tall R. mucronata stand and 7.058–7.369 in small R. mucronata stands. Significant correlations were found between annual litterfall of individual R. mucronata stands and their respective basal area measured at 30cm above the highest prop root. The seasonal pattern of litterfall was most closely related to total rainfall (r=0.913), mean maximum temperature (r=0.931) and minimum temperature (r=0.932). However, fall of non-leaf materials was also related to the force of the wind run associated with the last monsoon.
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