The social wasps belong to three monophyletic vespid subfamilies, Stenogastrinae, Polistinae and Vespinae. They have been considered as key groups to understanding the evolution of social behavior in insects. They also provide us suitable material for making good progress in the field of natural history. One reason for this could be the fact that the current species-level classification of social wasps are more or less well established, allowing us to carry out to revise the classification based on the taxonomic practices, such as comparative study with a modern species concept. In this paper, I present the summaries of two subjects. The first is about a hover wasp genus, Eustenogaster, and the wasps of this genus have bivoltine life cycle. The second treats speciation and dispersal of Polistes japonicus species-complex in the Nansei Islands.
Leeches (subclass Hirudinida) are very famous as blood-suckers. But taxonomic studies of leeches in Japan have been scarcely advanced after Dr. Asajiro Oka's death. In addition, Japanese morphological terms of leeches have been also confused for a long time. Therefore, this paper clarifies their Japanese morphological terms with briefly reviewing their morphology for the purpose of improving the taxonomic studies of leeches in Japan. Leeches possess two suckers and 34 somites with subdivided annuli. They have eyes and an anus on dorsal, and a male and female gonopore on ventral. Their internal morphology, such as digestive system or reproductive system, is as important as their external morphology for the taxonomy of leeches. Haematophagous species have crop and intestinal ceca for storing and digesting blood. In contrast, macrophagous taxa, like Erpobdelliformes, have simple tubular digestive system. They have the male and female reproductive system located ventral to the digestive system. Each Japanese term is connected with English equivalents and illustrations in this paper in order to prevent further confusion of the Japanese morphological terms.
Personal computers (PCs) are now indispensable to any field of study, and it is important to master efficient ways to compose documents, analyze data, and manage literature. This is especially true of illustrations, which take much time and repeated editing prior to use in publications, posters, presentations, and so on. Although some reports exist on techniques for making digital illustrations there has been rapid progress in the development of new PC hardware and software, so that some types of previously intractable digital graphical processing methods are now feasible and even routine. In this report, we introduce an easy and efficient way to make digital illustrations based on recent progress in software development. Using as an example small arthropods, our main study subject, we demonstrate a digital illustration method implemented in Adobe^[○!R] Illustrator CS3^[○!R], and describe the use of CombineZ, a focus stacking software.
Current higher level classification of eukaryotes are reviewed. In the past 15 years, modern morphological and biochemical approaches, and molecular phylogenetic studies have led to extensive modification of traditional classification schemes for eukaryotes. The most dramatic changes have occurred within protists, from which multicellular organisms evolved. There has to be a shift away from the emphasis on authorships and ranks toward Glade name stability. The new classification with "super-groups" of eukaryotes of ISOP (the International Society of Protistologists) 2005 version which reflects the knowledge of protist evolution, has reintroduced some formality with group names and their authority, and provides a point of reference for protist systematics. In addition to this classification and classical kingdom concept, some new concepts (i.e. "megagroup") are introduced.