The next edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature is in preparation. A proposal of amendment includes an acceptance of electronic-only publications in zoological nomenclature and official registration of new names published in them. Both are expected in circumstances of progressing information technologies such as the Internet.
ZooBank is intended as the official registry of Zoological Nomenclature, according to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. Since its launch in 2005, more than 73, 000 records of Nomenclatural Acts, >29, 000 Publications, and >11, 000 Authors have been deposited in ZooBank as of this writing. An explanatory introduction for ZooBank and proposed three scenarios for mandatory registration of names governed by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature is given in the Japanese language to popularize relevant issues in domestic taxonomic researchers.
Problems in direct optimization method as implemented in the software POY were reviewed. Alignment of highly variable regions using POY is problematic because it likely provides artificial maximization of pseudo-homology within the alignment. If the variable regions are aligned with conserved regions, then the bias could be emerged in two ways. When the conserved regions contain only weak phylogenetic signal, then stochastic similarities within the variable regions strongly affect to the final alignment. This type of bias can be emerged even if the variable regions are aligned independently. As a result, aligned variable sequences may provide superior amount of pseudo-signal which could even mask true weak signal contained in the conserved regions. When the conserved regions contain significant phylogenetic signal, then the variable regions will play as adherents of the conserved data even if the variable regions contain no or even contradicting phylogenetic signal. The adherent bias is especially problematic when data set contains heterogeneous sequences by gene introgression, recombination, or lineage sorting. Structure- or similarity-based approaches should be used in aligning DNA sequences.
Oncorhynchus kawamurae (Osteichthyes : Salmonidae) (Japanese name "Kunimasu"), a species endemic to Lake Tazawa, Akita Prefecture, Japan, was believed to have become extinct just before World War II. However, it was discovered in March and April, 2010 in Lake Saiko, Yamanashi Prefecture, one of the lakes to which eyed eggs of the species were introduced in 1935. The species is unique within Oncorhynchus in occurring normally in depths of 150-270m (water temperature 3.8-4.2℃), and spawning in 105-225m depth around September (3.8-4.5℃) and 15m depth (shallowest recorded) around February (3.0-4.6℃). Although Kunimasu shares the lake-spawning characteristic with the North American kokanee (O. nerka), no populations of the latter occur and spawn in such depths or temperatures. The specific distinctiveness of the black-coloured kunimasu from kokanee is here supported by morphological and biological characteristics recorded in pre-1941 literature. Because of the low temperatures tolerated during spawning, Kunimasu may have been derived from a population of "O. nerka" in the early Pleistocene (ca. 160 my BP), Lake Tazawa having become established at about that time. Subsequent climatic changes during the Pleistocene and Holocene resulted in the species necessarily moving into colder (deeper) water.