Phyllosoma, a zoeal larva with extremely flat body and long appendages of spiny and slipper lobsters, is morphologically different from other decapod zoeas. In natural environments, phyllosomas often associate with planktonic gelatinous organisms such as jellyfish although its ecological implication is still unclear. Here we review the interaction between phyllosomas and gelatinous organisms. Our recent examinations showed that phyllosomas feeding exclusively on jellyfish successfully develop into juvenile, and that phyllosomas could associate with and prey on various species of venomous jellyfish. These results suggest that phyllosomas utilize gelatinous organisms as food sources as well as floating vehicles.
A single specimen of a lutjanid fish, Lutjanus johnii (445mm in standard length), was collected from the Kuro-shima Island, Nichinan, Miyazaki, Kyushu Island, Japan. The species is distinguished from other members of the genus by the following combination of characters: a black ocellus larger than eye mainly above lateral line and below anterior soft dorsal-fin rays; longitudinal scale rows on back parallel to lateral line; a brownish dark spot on exposed area of each scale on body. This occurrence represents both the first record from the Japanese waters and the northernmost record on the basis of specimen. Morphological features and coloration of the Japanese specimen are described in detail, and the standard Japanese name, Kadogawa-fuedai is given.
Bryozoans comprise a phylum of sessile, clonal animals, inhabiting marine and freshwater environments. Only around 90 species have been described from freshwater habitats, most belonging to the class Phylactolaemata. Phylactolaemates can propagate asexually by forming encapsulated dormant bodies called statoblasts, which provide characters highly useful in phylactolaemate taxonomy and identification. To date, 23 species of phylactolaemate species in ten genera have been reported from Japan, however their taxonomical review has been never reported. Furthermore, current taxonomy of phylactolaemates is heavily depending on the observation of statoblast microsculpture by using scanning electron microscopy, which causes difficulty of simple identification. In this paper, major characters of colony and statoblast for all species of Japanese freshwater bryozoans including both 23 phylactolaemates and three ctenostomes are summarized. A key to species based on colony and statoblast gross morphology is also provided for help in identification of freshwater bryozoans in various fields such as faunal survey and education.