Lophophorata is the group in Lophotrochozoa; consists of three phyla Bryozoa, Phoronida and Brachiopoda. Lophophorata have a crown of ciliated tentacles surrounding the mouth, called lophophore, used in suspension feeding; and the anus at the outside of the lophophore. This paper review current taxonomy of Japanese Lophophorata. Phylum Bryozoa comprise clonal, modular animals, inhabiting marine and freshwater environments. Observation of statoblasts, asexual encapsulated dormant bodies, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) provides useful characters for the taxonomy of freshwater bryozoan class Phylactolaemata. Additional observation of histology of colony epidermis and the molecular phylogeny revealed the relationships between genera in Plumatellidae, the largest group in phylactolaemata. The first major report on a collection of Japanese marine bryozoans was the monograph on a collection from Sagami Bay; most of the species in the monograph had never been revised since its original description. All of the historical bryozoan specimens collected in Sagami Bay continually for more than 100 years were reexamined with SEM. Phylum Phoronida comprise a small group with only about ten species in the world, of which two species of Phoronis had been reported from Japan. However, their internal characters such as arrangement of the longitudinal muscle bundles and the nephridium morphology had never been studied. Two other phoronid species were newly found in revisional studies of Japanese Phoronida based on internal morphologies and the molecular phylogeny. Lingulid brachiopods are classified based on color and morphology of the valves and disposition of the adductor muscles, however Japanese Lingulid brachiopods had been identified based on characters of the valves only. In the preliminary study of Lingulid brachiopods from the Seto Inland Sea, all of the adductor muscles were reviewed with the new Japanese terms for the purpose of improving the taxonomic study in Japan.
Two examples of Lutjanus dodecacanthoides (Lutjanidae), previously recorded from India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Taiwan, and Japan (Yaeyama Islands, near Taiwan), were collected at a depth of 20-70m off the Osumi Group (30°20-35'N), Kagoshima Prefecture, southern Japan. Since the northernmost record of the species was considered as the Yaeyama Islands (24°03-28'N), southern Japan, the distributional range of the species extended approximately 700km northward. The newly collected specimens were described here and ecological information was given based on examination of the stomach contains of the specimens.
Some species of damselfishes (Pomacentridae) have a bright blue body color. The body surface of these species has scattered iridophores, which induce changes in their blue coloration. The blue color is readily converted to blackish color during formalin fixation of fresh specimens, making it difficult to take photographs of specimens of bluish damselfishes representing live coloration. In this study, an innovative method for restoring the blue coloration in formalin fixed specimens of bluish damselfishes is described. Chromatophore conditions before and after the blue coloration restoration are also illustrated. In addition, a glycerol penetration method to preserve the blue coloration of glycerin immersion preserved specimens are discussed.
A pelagic flabelligerid annelid, Buskiella vitjasi (Buzhinskaya, 1977), was newly recorded from the Japan Trench, off Miyako at a depth of 6235 meters during the Dive 476 of the deep-sea R/V Shinkai 6500 and two captured specimens were transferred to the author. The unique or exotic living nature of these worms was taken up in TV or in mass-circulation magazines with their photos and movies in some cases as a newly found worm. Here, their morphological characteristics were described. This species is thought to be distributed widely in western Pacific deep mid waters.
Japanese names of palinurid and scyllarid lobster species recorded from Japanese waters and commercially imported from foreign countries are reviewed. New names are proposed for species not available for Japanese names.