The aim of this study was to investigate how general health, oral conditions, and lifestyle were associated with periodontal disease in adults, as clarifying this relationship may be useful in preventing periodontal disease. Medical checkups were conducted on individuals aged 40, 50, or 60 years. Data were obtained for analysis on a total of 36,110 patients (men, 12,784; women, 22,896). A stepwise logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) for patients who were ≥code 3 according to the Community Periodontal Index (CPI). Approximately 40, 60, and 70% of men aged 40, 50, and 60 years, respectively, had a CPI score of ≥3. There were 10% fewer women than men at each age. Stepwise logistic regression revealed a BMI score of ≥30 kg/m2(OR, 1.44; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 1.20–1.73); systolic blood pressure of ≥140 mmHg (OR, 1.09; 95%CI, 1.02–1.18); a fasting blood sugar level of ≥110 mg/dl (OR, 1.17; 95%CI, 1.04–1.30); high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level of <40 mg/dl (OR, 1.21; 95%CI, 1.06–1.37); smoker (OR, 1.59; 95%CI, 1.48–1.71); drinking ≥3 cups of Japanese sake per day (OR, 1.09; 95%CI, 1.05–1.14); use of salts for seasoning (OR, 1.17; 95%CI, 1.07–1.28); and fair and poor oral hygiene (OR, 2.27; 95%CI, 2.08–2.47) as significant risk factors for a CPI score of ≥3. These results suggest that smoking, oral hygiene status, and factors associated with metabolic syndrome are associated with periodontitis. This indicates that health guidance on tooth brushing, the importance of quitting smoking, and control of obesity may be effective in preventing the development of periodontal disease in adults.
To investigate differences in alveolar growth during the primary dentition period among different age groups, dental arch width, length, and height were measured in 93 dental arch plaster models obtained from 4-year-olds born between 1968 and 1974, 88 from 5-year-olds born between 1968 and 1974 (70s group), 61 from 4-year-olds born between 2007 and 2009, and 56 from 5-year-olds born between 2006 and 2008 (2000s group). A comparison was also performed to determine whether there was any difference in change between 4 and 5 years of age. The results showed age- and sex-dependent differences in growth patterns in primary dental arch width, length, and height. The amount of change was greater in the 2000s group than in the 70s group, suggesting that yearly growth between 4 and 5 years of age has increased over the last 40 years.
Functional rehabilitation has been reported to improve swallowing. The effect of the presence or absence of such rehabilitation has yet to be compared in oral cancer patients, however. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effect on correlations between the period of hospitalization and the period of tube feeding (from the day of surgery to termination of tube feeding) and period of oral nutrition (from termination of tube feeding to discharge). Body weight was also measured on admission and discharge and the difference calculated. A correlation was observed between period of hospitalization and period of tube feeding in the rehabilitation group, and with the periods of tube feeding and oral nutrition in the non-rehabilitation group. In the rehabilitation group, the period of tube feeding appeared to affect period of hospitalization. On the other hand, termination of tube feeding did not tend to affect period of hospitalization. These results suggest that both periods were factors affecting period of hospitalization in the non-rehabilitation group. Not performing swallowing rehabilitation, therefore, resulted in the period of oral nutrition affecting the period of hospitalization. This suggests that it is essential that nutrients be ingested in moderation after termination of tube feeding, when they are only taken orally. Moreover, these results also indicate that rehabilitation is important in improving quality of life after discharge.
The aim of this study was to determine whether chewing with closed lips improved masticatory efficiency compared with open lips. A total of 21 adults comprising 10 men and 11 women with a mean age of 26.2±3.5 years and normal masticatory function were included in the study. The study participants were instructed to chew a fresh gummy under two conditions for 30 seconds each, one after the other: the first with closed lips, and the second with open lips. The average size of the fragmented gummies was calculated and graded from 1 to 4 according to a specific scale. Masticatory efficiency was evaluated using this “gummy mastication value” and the Gnatho-hexagraph II to observe and analyse jaw movement during chewing. Differences in chewing time and mouth-opening distance were also compared. The gummy mastication value for open and closed lips mastication was 2.51±0.56 and 3.25±0.50, respectively (p<0.01). Masticatory efficiency was significantly greater during closed-lip mastication. The number of chewing strokes over 20 seconds decreased while chewing time and mouth-opening distance increased in cycle 1 with open-lip mastication. In conclusion, the present results revealed that chewing efficiency improved with closed-lip mastication, indicating that instruction to seal the lips while eating is appropriate and necessary.
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reasons governing selection of geographical location of workplace by postgraduate dental trainees. We believe that such data would aid in the development of measures aimed at reducing regional disparities in the number of dentists. A total of 10 dental colleges and faculties in Japan were invited to participate in the study. Anonymous, self-completed questionnaire surveys were given to 739 dentists at 13 clinical training facilities following training in 2012 and 2013; 713 responses were analyzed. The items surveyed included the local population in the area in which they wished to work and whether they wanted to work in rural areas or remote islands. The most common response to the question regarding population was “medium-size cities” with a population of 100,000 to 300,000 people (67.3%). The largest number of respondents stated that they hoped to work in their hometown or a neighboring area (49.9%). A large percentage wished to work in medium-size cities, which may reflect the population of their hometowns. The current system allows dentists a free choice in becoming practitioners or hospital dentists on completion of training. This may explain why so many expressed a preference to work in their hometown or a neighboring area here. These results suggest that policies relying on increasing the supply of dentists as the sole solution to rural shortages are flawed.
Auto-transplantation is the repositioning of an autogenously erupted, partially erupted, or unerupted tooth from one site to another in the same individual. The purpose of this case report is to describe the auto-transplantation of the mandibular third molars as an alternative means of replacing second molars requiring extraction. An orthopantomogram revealed horizontal impaction of teeth #37 and 47 and mesio-angular impaction of teeth #38 and 48. Cone beam computed tomography revealed that the roots of #37 and 47 were in close proximity to the inferior alveolar canal bilaterally. As atraumatic and complete removal of these two teeth was not possible, #38 and 48 were chosen as the donor teeth instead. The procedure was carried out under general anesthesia. Teeth #38 and 48 were extracted atraumatically; teeth #37 and 47 were pulled out by sectioning and transplant sites prepared. Teeth #38 and 48 were transplanted to the sites vacated by teeth #37 and 47, respectively. Endodontic treatment of teeth #38 and 48 was completed within 1 month following transplantation. Both clinical and radiographic outcomes were considered satisfactory at 1 year postoperatively. Bone healing was observed around the roots of teeth #38 and 48. In conclusion, although auto-transplantation is not very common in general dental practice, we believe that it offers a clinically and economically viable alternative to other complicated prosthetic and dental implant treatments.
Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is an anomaly determined by genetic factors that alter ectodermal structures such as skin, hair, nails, glands, and teeth. Children affected by this condition require extensive, comprehensive, and multidisciplinary treatment. An 8-year-old female patient visited the Dentistry Clinic of the Federal University of Santa Catarina with the chief complaint of multiple missing teeth. The mother reported that the patient had ED. Clinical and radiographic examination revealed the congenital absence of several primary and permanent teeth and tooth germs. Subsequent oral rehabilitation comprised the application of a maxillary denture and mandibular implant-supported fixed prosthesis. The child was also supplied with a wig for further enhancement of esthetics aimed at improving her emotional wellbeing. Psychological follow-up and speech therapy were also provided. After 4 years of follow-up, implant-supported oral rehabilitation has proved to be a satisfactory treatment option, allowing restoration of masticatory, phonetic, and esthetic function, as well as an improvement in the patient's self-esteem and social wellbeing.
The goal of the present study was to clarify the status of training in clinical dentistry at training facilities belonging to Tokyo Dental College by investigating trainee quota fill rates and analyzing the relationship between selection of training program and subsequent career pathway. The trainees were divided into 4 groups based on career pathway after training: those entering graduate school; those becoming residents; those remaining at the college or hospital to take specialized clinical courses or for other purposes; and those starting work outside the college. The trainee quota fill rate was highest at the Suidobashi Hospital, followed by the Ichikawa General and Chiba Hospitals. A total of 8 training programs have been implemented at these facilities (Chiba: A, B, C, and D; Suidobashi, A, B, and C; and Ichikawa, A). A comparison among training programs revealed that the fill rate exceeded 60% in all cases, except for Chiba D, where it was markedly lower, at 25%. Career pathway after training significantly varied between training facilities. Among trainees selecting the Chiba Hospital, the highest proportion was occupied by those starting work outside the college. The proportion of those entering graduate school was also high in this group. Similarly, among trainees selecting the Suidobashi Hospital, the highest proportion was occupied by those starting work outside the college. The proportion of those entering graduate school was low in this group, however. Among trainees selecting the Ichikawa General Hospital, the proportions of those entering graduate school and those becoming residents were particularly high, while the proportion of those starting work outside the college was low. A comparison of career pathways revealed a significant difference only between Chiba Programs B and C. In conclusion, training facility showed a markedly stronger influence on career pathway than training program.
The goal of this study was to investigate length of time between full pulpotomy and a definitive diagnosis of vertical root fracture (VRF), as well as the age at which this was made. The participants comprised 63 dental patients (40 men and 23 women) with a mean age of 65.7±10.4 years in whom a definitive diagnosis of VRF had been made between July 2013 and June 2015, and who had also undergone a full pulpotomy. The data on all these cases were obtained from 22 dental clinics belonging to a clinical study group. The mean duration between a full pulpotomy and a definitive diagnosis of VRF was 141.0±88.9 months. The results showed no differences in terms of sex, mandible/maxilla, or tooth type. No relationship was observed between age at which the diagnosis was made and length of time between full pulpotomy and diagnosis (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.162) (p>0.05). Most diagnoses of VRF were made in patients aged over 50 years, irrespective of length of time between full pulpotomy and the diagnosis. These results suggest that age is a stronger indicator of VRF than length of time between full pulpotomy and a definitive diagnosis.
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