Type I diabetes, an autoimmune disease, induces insulin deficiency, which then disrupts vascular endothelial cell function, affecting blood and lymphatic vessels. Nitric oxide (NO) is an immune-induced destructive mediator in type I diabetes, and inhibition of its production promotes arteriosclerosis. In this study, lymphangiogenesis and expression of NO synthase (NOS) during the healing process after tooth extraction were investigated immunohistochemically in control (C57BL) and Akita mice as a diabetes model. Between 1, 4, and 10 days after extraction, expression of NOS, vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C), VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3), and von Willebrand factor was strongest during the granulation tissue phase. This suggests that severe inflammation triggers regulation of NOS and these other angiogenic and lymphangiogenic factors. During the callus phase, a few days after extraction, induced osteoblasts were positive for VEGF-C and VEGFR-3 in both the control and Akita mice, suggesting that bone formation is active in this period. Bone formation in the Akita group exceeded that in the controls. Bone tissue formation was disrupted under hyperglycemic conditions, however, suggesting that such activity would be insufficient to produce new bone.
Periapical periodontitis usually results from microbial infection, with these microorganisms occasionally migrating to the root canal, which can lead to further, potentially life-threatening, complications. Here, the susceptibility of 27 bacterial strains to various antimicrobial agents was evaluated. These strains comprised 13 species; 16 of the strains were clinical isolates from periapical lesions. Each strain was inoculated onto blood agar plates containing one of the antimicrobial agents. The plates were incubated anaerobically at 37°C for 96 hr and the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined. Ten strains required an MIC of 32 μg/ml or greater for amoxicillin, 6 for cefmetazole, and 5 for cefcapene among β-lactam antibiotics; 8 strains required an MIC of 32 μg/ml or greater for clindamycin, 4 for azithromycin, and 11 for clarithromycin among macrolide antibiotics; 3 strains required an MIC of 32 μg/ml or greater for ciprofloxacin and 2 for ofloxacin among fluoroquinolones. The effect of cefcapene on 5 strains was evaluated after biofilm formation to investigate the relationship between biofilm formation and susceptibility. All strains showed a decrease in susceptibility after biofilm formation. The results revealed that several antimicrobial agents commonly used in a clinical setting, including amoxicillin, cefmetazole, and clindamycin, are potentially effective in the treatment of orofacial odontogenic infections. The development of resistant strains, however, means that this can no longer be guaranteed. In addition, azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin were more effective than the 3 β-lactam antibiotics tested. These results suggest that sensitivity testing is needed if odontogenic infections are to be treated safely and effectively.
The prevalence of dental caries has been decreasing among kindergarten children in Shanghai, China, over recent years, although it still remains at an unacceptably high level. The purpose of this study was to identify which factors were important in providing oral health guidance and achieving further improvement in the oral health status of kindergarten children in urban China. A survey was conducted on dental caries in 128 Japanese and 368 Chinese kindergarten children and a questionnaire given to their parents/guardians on each child’s lifestyle and dietary habits from birth to the present. Correlations between responses to each questionnaire item and the status of dental caries were statistically analyzed. The dft index score (p=0.0016), prevalence of dental caries (p=0.0002), and percentages of children with decayed (untreated caries-affected) teeth (p<0.0001) were significantly higher in the Chinese than in the Japanese children. Many differences were observed in lifestyle factors between the two groups. The percentage of parents failing to control the child’s snacking habits between meals was higher in China, and weaning was significantly delayed in China compared with in Japan. These lifestyle factors were considered to be associated closely with the high risk of dental caries in Chinese kindergarten children. These findings indicate that oral health guidance for kindergarten children in Shanghai, China, should focus on control of dietary habits, including control of inter-meal snacking, and breastfeeding practices. The results of this study may help improve the status of dental caries among Chinese children.
The present study targeted patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP) undergoing either one - (Wardill technique) or two-stage palatoplasty (Perko technique). Correlations between Goslon Yardstick scores and orthodontic appliances used and whether an osteotomy was performed were investigated. No differences were observed between the two types of palatoplasty in terms of Goslon Yardstick scores. A palatal expander and protraction facemask were used in Phase I of orthodontic treatment. The palatal expander was selected for most patients with UCLP in Phase I, regardless of the surgical technique used. A protraction facemask was used in patients undergoing the Wardill procedure who had a Goslon Yardstick score placing them in Group 3 or 4. In contrast, a protraction facemask was used in patients undergoing the Perko procedure who had a Goslon Yardstick score placing them in Group 4. No significant differences were observed in the Goslon Yardstick scores yielded by either type of procedure. The Goslon Yardstick score in relation to whether an osteotomy was performed in Phase II as part of orthodontic treatment was determined, focusing on the relationship between that score and the palatoplasty method used. A protraction facemask was used in patients undergoing the Perko procedure, which eliminated the need for an osteotomy at a future date. However, a protraction facemask was also used in patients undergoing the Wardill option, and those patients were likely to require an osteotomy. In other words, the results suggest that the type of palatoplasty selected will determine the effectiveness of any orthodontic appliances used.
This study retrospectively compared blood loss during sagittal split ramus osteotomy in patients receiving propofol-remifentanil (R group) and those receiving propofol-fentanyl (F group). All patients underwent sagittal split ramus osteotomy under general anesthesia during the 3-year 4-month period between October 2007 and February 2011 in an operating room at Tokyo Dental College Suidobashi Hospital. Blood loss in the R group was significantly less than that in the F group. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate, measured at 20 and 15 min after tracheal intubation, respectively, were both lower in the R group. No marked change was observed in blood pressure in the R group under general anesthesia, however. Volume of urine was also larger in the R group. The results of this study suggest that remifentanil is effective in reducing intraoperative blood loss during sagittal split ramus osteotomy.
The purpose of this study based on a cross-sectional internet survey was to investigate the relationship between risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and self-assessed oral health status. The participants, who comprised individuals registered with an online research company, were required to complete a self-reported questionnaire. Those answering in the affirmative to both of the following two questions were placed in the OSA-risk group, while those answering in the negative were assigned to the control group: ‘Have other people noticed pauses in your breathing while you are sleeping?’ and ‘Do you feel excessively sleepy during the daytime?’. A total of 493 were included in the OSA-risk group and 2,560 in the control group. Among the total 3,053 respondents, the highest prevalence for OSA risk in men was in the 50–59-year age range, although this tended to level off after age 60 years. No such trend was observed in women, however. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the relationship between risk of OSA and self-assessed oral health status. Significant correlations were observed with the following parameters: difficulty in opening mouth (odds ratio [OR]: 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.647–4.311), dry mouth (OR: 2.11; CI: 1.544–2.876), bad breath (OR: 1.69; CI: 1.309–2.186), gingival bleeding (OR: 1.48; CI: 1.134–1.932), and gingival swelling (OR: 1.44; CI: 1.046–1.981). These results suggest a relationship between risk of OSA and self-assessed oral health status, indicating that treating OSA might improve oral health status. Further study is needed to demonstrate a causal relationship between OSA and self-assessed oral health status, however.
Here, we report the diagnosis and treatment of an extraoral cutaneous sinus tract originating in a mandibular second molar with a C-shaped root canal system. The patient was referred to our department by a dermatologist after a series of unsuccessful treatments, including antibiotics. Diffuse radiolucency on a preoperative radiograph revealed that earlier root canal treatment had been only partially successful. Consequently, we performed retreatment of the root canal comprising removal of the former restoration and gutta-percha, cleaning and shaping, and passive irrigation with sodium hypochlorite. The patient responded well, and the cutaneous lesion completely resolved uneventfully within 1 month postoperatively. Preoperative recognition and thorough knowledge of the root canal anatomy and conventional methods of obturation are necessary in performing successful endodontic treatment.
In 2009, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology launched its “Program for Promoting University Education and Student Support, Theme A: Program for Promoting University Education Reform”. The ministry’s stated aims were to 1) enhance student training centered on the needs of the individual patient; 2) improve their ability to make comprehensive diagnosis and treatment plans; and 3) instill high ethical standards and good communication skills. One of the main pillars of this project was to establish an educational organization aimed at encouraging public participation, the “Patient Community”. The aim was to have members of this community roleplay patients in the Communication Studies component of the 1st–4th years of dental school. It was hoped that they would be able to respond to the students in a more realistic manner than simulated patients. Here, the number of Patient Community members and number who attended Communication Studies classes in 2010, 2011, 2012, and 2014 were investigated. The results showed that the number registered in the Patient Community increased annually, as did the number participating in Communication Studies classes, which rose in accordance with the number of classes held. No difference was observed in the number of attendees per Communication Studies class by grade (years 1–4). The number of members never attending Community Studies classes increased annually, although some members repeatedly attended. These findings suggest that the members who regularly participate tend to remain the same.