The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between the length of each of three fingers (the index finger, 2D; ring finger, 4D; and little finger, 5D) and the occlusal vertical dimension (OVD). If such a relationship were established, it would simplify and facilitate the prediction and reestablishment of the OVD in the construction of complete dentures. The correlation between the OVD and the length of 2D or 5D has already been investigated in a number of studies. However, to our knowledge, no study has investigated the relationship between the length of 4D and the OVD. A total of 117 adult Sudanese women were enrolled in this study. The distance from tip of the finger to the second crease was measured using a digital caliper. The OVD was established based on two measurements: one from the septum of the nose to the menton of the chin; and the other from the tip of the nose (N) to the gnathion at the tip of the chin (Gn). All data were analyzed using the SPSS program. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the relationship between variables. Differences between means were determined using a paired-sample t-test. The p-value was set at 0.05. A significant correlation was found between finger length and the OVD. However, this correlation was significantly higher between 2D and the OVD based on N-Gn. The present findings indicate that 2D can be used to predict the OVD in adult Sudanese women.
In maxillary molar region implant therapy, support is sometimes obtained from trabecular bone comprising the maxillary tuberosity, pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone, and pyramidal process of the palatine bone. Great care is necessary in such cases due to the presence of the greater palatine canal, which forms a passageway for the greater palatine artery, vein, and nerve. However, clinical anatomical reports envisioning embedding of pterygomaxillary implants in this trabecular bone region have been limited in number. In this study, the 3-D morphology of the greater palatine canal region, including the maxillary tuberosity region and points requiring particular care in pterygomaxillary implantation, were therefore investigated. Micro-CT was used to image 20 dentulous jaws (40 sides) harvested from the dry skulls of Japanese individuals with a mean age of 28.2 years at time of death. The skulls were obtained from the Jikei University School of Medicine cadaver repository. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the trabecular bone region, including the greater palatine canal, was performed using software for 3-D measurement of trabecular bone structure. Trabecular bone region morphometry was performed with the hamular notch-incisive papilla (HIP) plane as the reference plane. The results showed a truncated-cone structure with the greater palatine foramen as the base extending to the pterygopalatine fossa. This indicates the need for care with respect to proximity of the dental implant body to the greater palatine canal and the risk of perforation if it is embedded in the maxillary tuberosity region at an inclination of 60° toward the lingual side. Moreover, caution must be exercised to avoid possible damage to the medial wall of the maxillary sinus if the inclination of the embedded dental implant body is almost perpendicular to the HIP plane.
Short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms were investigated in 341 unrelated Malay individuals (218 males and 123 females) living in or around Kuala Lumpur by using a forensic analysts kit. The following STRs were targeted: D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA. The purpose of this study was to elucidate population genetics in Malaysia and calculate statistical parameters for forensic and anthropological research. Data on these STRs in the target population were obtained and subjected to statistical analysis. Accordance with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was proven for all the loci targeted. The combined power of discrimination was greater than 0.9999999999, indicating that this multiplex system is an excellent tool for forensic casework. The allele frequency in the data were weighed against that in four other local populations (Chinese, Iranian, Belgian, and African). The average coefficient of correlation was strongest in the order of Africa (0.092522), Belgium (0.264822), Iran (0.404363), and China (0.706661). These results are consistent with what is known about the anthropological history of and prehistoric human migration in the Malay region. We believe that these data offer a valuable anthropological resource, being applicable to the statistical evaluation of DNA evidence in human identification, as well as the determination of ethnicity in healthy populations.
The management of epithelial dysplastic spread around an oral squamous cell carci-noma is very important, particularly intraoperatively. Both cytokeratin (CK) 14 and CK19 are believed to be involved in the development of precancerous lesions, and their expression profiles are quite specific in these and early cancer lesions. Here, expression of CK13, 14, 17, and 19 was investigated in a rat model of 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced tongue cancer during a series of carcinogenetic processes to determine their value in assessing the features of epithelial dysplastic spread around a cancer. Based on tissue conditions, the results showed that expression levels of CK13 and 14 decreased in the order of no change, dysplasia, and cancer, whereas those of CK17 and 19 increased in the same order. Expression of CK13 showed a significant difference among no change, dysplasia, and cancer. This indicates that comparing the immunohistochemical staining profiles of CKs, especially CK13, could help in assessing the characteristics of epithelial dysplastic spread around a cancer.
A comprehensive knowledge of the anatomy of the root canal is a basic prerequisite for the success of endodontic treatment. Mandibular molars may have an additional root located lingually (radix entomolaris) or buccally (radix paramolaris). An awareness of the potential for and understanding of unusual external and internal root canal mor-phology contributes to the successful outcome of root canal treatment. Here, we report two cases of radix entomolaris to increase awareness and understanding of this unusual morphology so that procedural errors during endodontic therapy might better be avoided.
We report a case of generalized aggressive periodontitis (AgP) requiring periodontal treatment including flap surgery and ridge augmentation. The patient was a 39-year-old woman who presented with the chief complaint of pus discharge from tooth #36. No other obvious signs of gingival inflammation were observed. Periodontal examination revealed multiple sites with a probing depth of ≥10 mm. Radiography showed pro-nounced bone defects in the maxillary incisors and molar region. Real-time PCR was used to detect Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Tannerella forsythia in subgingival plaque; all 3 pathogens were found. Based on a clinical diagnosis of generalized AgP, periodontal therapy was initiated, which resulted in an improvement in clinical and microbiological parameters. A modified Widman flap procedure was then performed on sites with residual periodontal pockets. Next, a connective tissue graft was performed for ridge augmentation at #22, which had shown evidence of ridge resorption. Postoperative reevaluation revealed a reduction in probing depth and an improvement in marginal bone levels. Oral function was then restored using a fixed bridge prosthesis and maintenance therapy initiated. The periodontal condition has remained stable over a 2.5-year period. In the present case of AgP, surgical intervention reduced periodontal pockets and periodontal pathogens and improved the architecture of both the hard and soft tissues, allowing subsequent care of the periodontium to be performed efficiently by the patient.
Scissor bite is defined as buccal displacement of the maxillary posterior teeth, with or without contact between the lingual surface of the maxillary lingual cusp and the buccal surface of the buccal cusp of its mandibular antagonist. Here we report treatment of bilateral scissor bite in the posterior region using rapid expansion following corticot-omy. The patient was a boy aged 17 years and 11 months in whom skeletal maxillary prognathism with bilateral scissor bite was diagnosed. The distance between the tips of canines and the mesial buccal cusps of the first molars was increased by use of a bonded rapid expansion appliance following corticotomy. Appropriate occlusion and lateral pro-file were obtained and maintained after retention. In addition, no gingival recession, hyperesthesia, or root surface caries occurred. These results suggest that mandibular lateral expansion following corticotomy is effective in young adult patients with a narrow mandibular arch.
Posterior open bite can cause problems with occlusion. It arises from systemic or local factors such as physical or functional interference, ankylosis, and failure of eruption. Primary failure of eruption (PFE) is a rare condition that is difficult to differentiate from ankylosis and requires complex treatment strategies. Here we report a 12-year-old girl who was referred to our hospital by her dentist for re-evaluation of eruption failure of the left maxillary secondary premolar and first and second molars with congenitally missing maxillary lateral teeth. The maxillary first molar was extracted for a therapeutic diagnosis. The left maxillary secondary premolar and second molar reacted well to subsequent orthodontic treatment. Auto-transplantation of the mandibular premolar to the maxil-lary arch was carried out to achieve optimal overjet, overbite, and occlusion. The active treatment period spanned 4 years and 1 month. Assessment of the patient's medical and dental history, prior trauma, and clinical conditions resulted in a therapeutic diagnosis of PFE. Satisfactory orthodontic treatment results were achieved.
Apical periodontitis is usually diagnosed based on clinical findings and dental X-rays. Recently, however, dental cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), which provides 3-D images of the maxillofacial region, has enabled dentists to examine patients undergoing endodontic therapy more effectively, improving diagnostic accuracy. Here, we describe a positive treatment outcome achieved using CBCT to diagnose apical periodontitis of the maxillary premolars, which had proven difficult to diagnose based on clinical findings and dental radiography alone. The patient was a 42-year-old Japanese man who presented with the chief complaint of gingival swelling in the maxillary right premolar region. Our initial diagnosis, based on clinical findings and dental X-ray, was apical periodontitis of the maxillary right second premolar, and treatment was started. However, after the patient failed to respond to the treatment, CBCT was performed. Based on these new findings, the diagnosis was changed to one of apical periodontitis of the upper right first premolar, and the patient was treated accordingly. Previous studies have described the complex anatomical morphology of the upper premolars, noting multiple roots and variation in the morphology of the root canals. The 3-D images provided by dental CBCT allow better assessment of oral conditions than the traditional 2-D images provided by dental X-rays, which in turn enables the dentist to better select the most appropriate treatment. Here, the patient showed no symptoms and was progressing well at a 6-month follow-up visit. The present results indicate that when clinical findings and dental X-rays alone are insufficient to allow a secure diagnosis, CBCT offers an effective alternative which will enable the appropriate treatment to be selected more reliably.
Here we investigated needlestick and similar injuries reported over a 10-year period between April 2004 and March 2014. The purpose of this study was to prevent recurrence and reduce the incidence of such injuries at Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital. The Division of Medical Risk Management at Chiba Hospital anonymized the data to protect personal information prior to analysis. A total of 213 injuries occurred over the 10-year period investigated, but the number of cases decreased yearly. Many cases involved dental undergraduate students and dentists, followed by trainee dentists, students at the school of dental hygiene, nurses, dental hygienists, and cleaners. Suture needles, followed by injection needles, were the top two most common injury-causing instruments, contributing to approximately 50% of the total number of such cases. Many injection needle injuries occurred during tidying up, while those caused by suture needles occurred during dental treatment. Taken together, these findings suggest the importance of strict adherence to guidelines provided in safety manuals on error-free procedures and handling of instruments. Improvement in the ability to sense potential risk is essential if such injuries are to be avoided.