Many scholars, in analyzing the concept of“public”in the intellectual history of Japan have centered their arguments around the problem of the concept of the“public and the private”(koshi or oyake to watakushi). However, in the case of Yokoi Shonan (1809-1869), I wish to make a distinction between his concern with“the public”(kokyo) and his treatment of the “public and private.”It seems to me that Yokoi placed centrality on“the public”and sought, especially after the arrival of Commodore Perry's“Black Ships, ”as a means to realize the idea of“the public”in Japanese society, economy, and politics.
Historical demography as a discipline of science has established in France by Louis Henry. He utilized first the genealogy of Geneva followed by the parish registers which were found in almost all Christian societies after the sixteenth or seventeenth century. His method named“family reconstitution”was to link the events of baptism, burial and marriage of persons recorded in the sources. Baptism can be looked on the birth and burial the death. To make linkage individual man and woman, a couple can be reconstituted with the ages at marriage and their child bearings, in good case the children's life courses. This was truly revolutionary achievement for historical population studies, though it was necessary tremendous efforts, time and research fund. However, through family reconstitution transformed population history to historical demograhy. Since through this method, researchers can calculate the TMFR (total marital fertility rate), the infant death, age at marriage, and the duration of marriage, that were looked impossible before modern censuses or population surveys was carried out. There are many kind of sources of historical demography in the world. Among them, the population register type records are particularly valuable, when we can use them periodically continuous. Since they have the information on the state of population which lacks in the parish register. Most of demographic analysis requires the“rates.”To find them we need to have not only numerator but also denominator (or population at risk). The parish register describes just the events in human life course, i.e. the numerator. Moreover, almost all population registers recorded the existing “family”which was the neighbor of population. Marriage, migration and inheritance are the key term for both population and family studies. The problem is where the good population records are available. Up to now, we have found the high quality series of this kind of sources in Sweden (after mid-seventeenth century), Belgium (after mid-nineteenth century), Italy (after mid-seventeenth century), China (after mid-eighteenth century) and Japan. We organized the international comparative study group, “Eurasian Project, ”supported by Japanese Government. In the Japan's case, we have one of the best records of this kind. They are the“shumon-aratame-cho”or“nimbetsu-aratame-cho”, hereafter I call them SAC. The SAC was a product of the harsh policy of prohibition of Christianity. The Tokugawa government issued the order to ban the Christianity in 1638, that all the Japanese should be the Buddhist and to prove this the registers must be compiled by village and town officers. All the residents had to sit for the inquisition fundamentally every year. Eventually, in the best case, we have the annual SAC survey from 1638 to 1871 when the early Meiji government abolished this investigation under the pressure of the Western power. But in reality there are a lot of exceptions and during over 230 years, most of the sources were broken out. Still we collected over 100 village and town records. We can of course apply the family reconstitution, but we are now carrying out more detailed research, based on the individual life history. We can utilize the life course analysis, event history analysis and advanced demographic and statistical methods. The results are appearing both for domestic and international studies.
In considering Jesus' words“Split a piece of wood; I am there”in Logion 77, I offer the thesis, based on the perspective of tradition criticism (Traditionsgeshichte), that these words were formed through interaction with the Upanisad, particularly the“father's word”in Chadgya-Upanisad 12:11, 12. My reasoning is based on the following: (1) In both words, there exists a common phrasing referring to“split a wood”. (2) The“I”which we should infer from the word“wood”in the Gospel of Thomas and“[atman]”in Upanisad-of course in the former the first-person is used explicitly as a pronoun referring to Jesus, while in the latter the narrator's“father”is not directly specified-both are symbolic references to the“primary self”of human beings, and from it we can verify a structural relationship. (3) The Acts of Thomas, which shares similar ideals and was established around the same period as the Gospel of Thomas (early 3rd century), has Indian missions as its theme. (4) Although the Acts of Thomas is a missionary tale, we can establish from internal and external evidence that prior to its establishment (late 2nd century, i. e. when the Gospel of Thomas was established), there was contact between Christianity and Indian culture.
(ALDE) HOMER, Opera Omnia, cum vita eius ex Herodoto, Dione et Plutarcho. (Graece). Venice, Aldus, 1517, Mense Iunio, in -8, 277ff. -55ff. (n. ch.), -251ff. -1f. (n.ch.), plein parchemin à rabats. Caractères grecs. ‘Cette édition, qui n'est cependent pas exempte de fautes typographiques, contient assez de corrections et de rectifications pour être considérée comme un nouveau texte. Meilleure et plus rare encore que celle de 1504, qui lui a servi de base, elle est surtout bien plus correct que la troisieme de 1524' (renouard p.80). Salissure sur le premier feuillet. Annotations marginales contemporaines. Divers cachets et inscriptions d'appartenance dont celle de Gérard Empain calligraphiée sur le premier plat de la reliure.’ To the above description, announced by the Librairie Ancienne Minet Frères, Bruxelles, in 1994 when the book was put on sale, the following few factual remarks are to be added with special reference to the“annotations marginales contemporaines”. This particular copy of the Aldine Homer is now temporarily under my keeping in Tokyo.