MURATA, K. and ARAKI, S. Menarche and Sleep among Japanese Schoolgirls: An Epidemiological Approach to Onset of Menarche. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171 (1), 21-27-Menarche occurs in the pubertal period of normal girls without endocrine disorders; nevertheless, the mechanism of its onset remains unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 254 schoolgirls aged 9 to 15 years to clarify the effects of age, body weight, height, hours of sleep, and sleep conditions on the onset of menarche. Among six schoolyear groups comprising about 42 girls for each, the menarcheal percent, body weight, and height significantly increased according to the school year; by contrast, hours of sleep shortened significantly. The maxi mal increase in the menarcheal percent followed the abrupt decrease in hours of sleep. The result of multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that body weight, height, and hours of sleep were significantly related to the presence/ absence of manarche while controlling for the effects of age and sleep conditions. These data suggest that the onset of menarche is affected by hours of sleep, as well as body weight and height reported in the previous studies.
MA, G., SEGAWA, M., NOMURA, Y., KONDO, Y., YANAGITANI, M. and HIGURASHI, M. The Development of Sleep-Wakefulness Rhythm in Normal Infants and YoungChildren. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171 (1), 29-41-The development of circadian sleep-wakefulness rhythm was investigated by a longitudinal study of two normal newborns for two and a half years and by a transversal study of 182 normal infants and young children living in three different areas of Japan. The circadian rhythm became established before 4 months of age, and daytime sleep became concentrated within two time periods from 7 months of age, and then within a single peak from 14 months of age. The time period 00:00-04:00 developed into the “absolute sleep period” from 3 months of age, and the “absolute wakefulness period” appeared first in the time period 08:00-11:00 from 14 months of age, and then in the time period 16:00-21:00 from one and a half years of age. Establishment of circadian rhythm as indicated by the numbers of sleep epochs in daytime and in nighttime, and the longest continuous sleep or wakefulness periods reflect the development of the nervous system and were influenced by the change of light-dark in the environment. These parameters showed critical ages, but not sexual or regional differences. However, regional differences were found in the times of waking up in morning and falling asleep at night. This indicated the phase of the circadian rhythm was also influenced by natural and social environmental factors.
KANNO, H., NOSE, M., NIKI, T., MIYAZAWA, M. and KYOGOKU, M. AMacrophage Differentiating Factor Derived from Human T Cell Line HUT102Acting on a Mouse Myeloid Cell Line M1. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171 (1), 43-52-Human T cell leukemia virus type I-transformed T cell line HUT102 constitutively secreted soluble factors which induced differentiation of a murine myeloid leukemic cell line, M1, to increase the immune complex-binding and/or phagocytizing capacity. This macrophage differentiating factor(s) (MDF) was purified from the culture supernatants of HUT102 cells by using several steps of column chromatography and novel immune-adherence and/or immune-phagocytic assays. The finally purified MDF activity was detected in the fraction that consisted of 40, 000- and 45, 000-molecular weight molecules. Antibodies specific for human interleukin-6 or for human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, both of which have differentiation-inducing activity on M1 cells when used as a single factor, could not neutralize the MDF activity. These findings suggest that the 40, 000- and/or 45, 000- molecular weight molecules in the HUT102 cell products may be possible novel differentiation-inducing factors acting on a murine macrophage lineage across the species barrier.
ITO, K. Morphological Analysis of Yolk Sac Tumor. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171 (1), 53-63-Morphological analysis of imprint histology and cytology was performed in 7 patients with yolk sac tumor (YST). As a result, histological figures of YST were classified into 4 patterns. Endodermal sinus pattern was most frequently identified, followed by polyvesicular vitelline pattern. Imprint cytology findings of YST were also classified into 4 patterns. Cuboidal cells were most frequently observed; cells and nuclei were both cuboidal in shape and 25-40μ and 20-25μ in diameters, respectively. The chromatic showed fine to coarse granular patterns. The nuclear cytoplasmic (N/C) ratio was 50-70%, and each nucleus contained one to four nucleoli. Next to cuboidal cells, spindle-shaped cells were frequently noticed; 20-40μ in size with spindle-shaped nuclei 10-20μ in diameter and fine to coarse granular chromatic pattern. Naked cells and bizarre cells were also noticed. It was postulated that cuboidal cells and spindle-shaped cells were originated from the endodermal sinus pattern and the loose reticular pattern of YST, respectively. When utilized with rapid-frozen specimens, imprint cytology of YST is sufficient for rapid diagnosis during operations.
KOBAYASHI, S., OKADA, S., YOSHIDA, H., HASUMI, T., SATO, N., INABA, H., NAKADA, T. and FUJIMURA, S. A Convenient and Inexpensive Chemo-Radiosensitivity Assay for Lung Cancer Cells Using Terasaki's Microplate. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171 (1), 65-75-We devised a simple in vitro sensitivity test for lung cancer cells using Terasaki's microplate. We used the test to screen for sensitivity to various carcinostatic drugs and radiation, and to determine the optimum method of administration. This assay has been used in routine clinical examinations because about 40% of non-small cell carcinoma and 80% of small cell carcinoma of the lung can be subcultured. We describe here our patients who underwent treatment, various sensitivity tests and the preparation of an optimal course of treatment based upon the results of the sensitivity tests. Cells were placed in primary culture as previously described for short-term selective culture, and 2nd-3rd generation subcultured cells were transferred to individual wells of Terasaki's microplates for various sensitivity tests. After culture for 10 days, the effect was evaluated using 0.1% iodonitrotetrazolium (TNT). This test permits a variety of sensitivity tests and various studies of clinical models of intensive treatment to be performed conveniently and reproducibly, because subcultured cancer cells are used. Another advantage is that these cells can be applied to basic investigations, including the preparation of monoclonal antibodies and chromosomes, DNA ploidy and oncogene studies.
SATO, N., UCHIDA, N., MIURA, M., OHMI, M., FUKUJU, T., TABAYASHI, K., HANEDA, K. and MOHRI, H. Risk Analysis of Low Cardiac Output Syndromeafter Valve Replacement. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171 (1), 77-88-In order to obtain a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the postoperative low cardiac output syndrome (LOS), a multivariate regression analysis was performed, evaluating predictive risk factors quantitatively as a function of plural preoperative variables. A total of 145 cases including 76 MVR (MS 36 MR 40), 42 AVR and 27 DVR were analized in this study. Ten historical, 10 hemodynamic and 4 operative risk factors were collected to compose the data file with corresponding status of postoperative cardiac function which was classified as follows. Patients who were not associated with postoperative LOS (Score 1), associated with the LOS which required and responded to ordinal dosage of a catecholamine (Score 2) associated with the LOS which required and responded to maximal dosage of the catecholamine and/or mechanical circulatory support (Score 3), and died of LOS (Score 4). Variables with significant relationships to postoperative LOS, regression equation to LOS score and their multiple correlation coefficients (R) of each group were as follows. MVR group: technical trouble (TT), extracerporeal circulation time (ECCT), change of myocardial preservation methods, ΔLVSWI/ΔLVEDP, diseased duration, aortic cross clamping time, CTR, Y=-1.16+ 1.01(TT)+0.05(ECCT)+0.16(ΔLVSWI/ΔLVEDP)+0.02(CTR), R=0.76. AVR group: LVMMI, ECCT, cardiac failure, NYHA, Y=-0.71+ 0.03(LVMMI)+0.004(ECCT)+0.22(NYHA), R=0.78. DVR group: ΔLVWI/ΔLVEDP, LVMMI, NYHA, LV diastolic eccentricity ratio, ECCT, Y=-0.50+0.60 (ΔLVWI/ΔLVEDP)+0.003(LVMMI)+1.18(NYHA)+0.38(ΔLVSWI/ΔLVEDP)+0.003(ECCT), R=0.87. It was demonstrated that preoperative ergometer exercise study during cardiac catheterization was useful in prediction of postoperative outcomes, especially in the MVR (MS) group.
SHIBUYA, N., OHTA, T., NAKADAIRA, H., MANO, H., ENDOH, K. and YAMAMOTO, M. Mutagenicity of Activated Carbon Adsorbate of Drinking Water in the AmesAssay. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171 (1), 89-95-Mutagenicity of activated carbon adsorbate from drinking water collected in Niigata City was assayed by the Ames assay. Adsorbate was extracted from activated carbon with benzene, and then with ethanol. Although the benzene extract was not mutagenic, the ethanol one showed the mutagenic activity for Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 with and without S9 mix. The ethanol extract was much more mutagenic on TA100 than TA98 both with and without S9 mix. The mutagenic activity per liter of water was found to be the strongest in winter and the weakest in summer.
ANDOH, N., OHTANI, H., SATOH, I., SASANO, N., MUKADA, T., YANAIHARA, N. and NAGURA, H. Immunohistochemical Localization of Gonadotropin-AssociatedPeptide (GAP) in the Human Hypothalamus. Toheku J. Exp. Med., 1993, 171 (1), 97-99-GAP was immunohistochemically localized for the first time in the human hypothalamus. GAP-immunoreactivity was present in the cytoplasm of neuronal cells in the arcuate nucleus. GAP-immunoreactive nerve fibers were also present in the primary plexus around capillaries in the infundibular region. No GAP-immunoreactive neurons were detected in the paraventricular nuclei or supraoptic nuclei.