Using specimens of liver tissue obtained at the time of operation, the amount of labile liver protein was determined by Fishman's method.The results obtained may be summarized as follows: 1. The liver protein of the left lobe was more than 13.0g./dl in some cases of gastric ulcer and cancer, but 8.0 to 13.0g./dl in 60 per cent of the ulcer cases and in 78.8 per cent of the cancer cases. These low values were seen mainly in ulcer cases with complications and in far advanced cases, and the value seemed to become lower as the disease was advanced further. 2. The liver protein showed a tendency to decrease as the influence of the operation was greater. A transfusion of more than 500g. blood during operation seemed to prevent the decrease of the liver protein. 3. Several findings as to the liver protein are suggestive of the existence of some functional difference between the right and left lobes, in that the change of the value due to operation or blood transfusion was more mani-fest in the right lobe. 4. Liver disturbance caused a decrease in liver protein.
Using our method for obtaining electrophoretic patterns of liver component with a small specimen, liver protein in clinical cases was in-vestigated, with the results to be summarized as follows: 1. In many cases of gastric or duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer, the liver protein value of the left lobe was lower than 80 per cent pre-operatively, and indeed about 26 per cent of the cancer cases (14 cases) showed protein values below 70 per cent. Lower values appeared more frequently in far advanced cases or cases with remarkable complications. 2. Even such gastric operations as those requiring not more than 1 hour brought about decrease in liver protein value. This decrease, however, could be checked by transfusion of more than 500 g. blood during, operation. 3. Preoperatively, there was found little difference in liver protein in value between the right and left lobes. Postoperatively, however, the liver protein value of the right lobe was definitely lower than that of the left in many cases. From a comparison of the liver protein values between both lobes, these postoperative low values of the right lobe seems to have been brought about by the tendency of the right lobe to be readily influenced by operation. A transfusion of a large amount of blood seems. to serve to check this. 4. In patients with liver disturbances, especially those with liver cirrhosis, the liver protein showed very low values.
By the method ofelectrostimulation, the relation between the magnitude of cone-processes and the duration of the light stimulus was investigated at the human fovea. 1. The magnitudes of cone processes increased almost proportional to the logarithm of the duration of light till a certain critical duration was attained beyond which the response remained constant. The critical duration was designated “aturation time”. 2. The saturation time was 200 msec, remaining unaltered, no mat-ter what the wave lengths and intensities of the spectral lights used might be. 3. The saturation time for white light was always 500 msec. regard-less of its intensity. 4. The difference in saturation time between spectral and white lights was interpreted in terms of interaction among the receptor systems involved. The writer is greatly indebted to Prof. K. Motokawa, under whose guid-ance this investigation was performed, for his generous advice and valuable suggestions throughout the course of the experiment and the preparation of the manuscript.
Using the method of electrostimulation the relation between the electrical excitability of the eye and the duration of illuminating white light was studied at 20° from the foveal center. The percentage increase in electrical excitability following an illumina-tion was expressed by ζ. ζ-time curves consist of three elevations situated at 1.5 and 3 seconds from the end of illumination and at 4.5 seconds from its onset. The latter was designated “a rod process”, while the process with its crest at 1.5 sec. and that at 3 sec. were described as Y- and B-processes respectively. 1. The magnitudes of the Y-process increased in proportion to the logarithms of the durations of illumination, and at a certain critical duration they became saturated. These critical duration was called “saturation time”. When the intensities of illumination were increased to 100 lux and above, the saturation time was always 0.5 seconds. This coincides precisely with that found by Oba at the fovea. 2. The saturation times at such lower intensities as 0.1, 1 and 10 lux were always 6 sec., and in the intermediate region from 100 to 10 lux the value of saturation time varied from 6 to 0.5 seconds. 3. With the B-process quite the same result was obtained as with the Y-process. 4. The data were interpreted in terms of photopic and scotopic excitation of the retina. I am greatly indebted to Prof. K. Motokawa for his many valuable dis-cussions and kind guidance.
1. Neither CPPA of serum nor fibrinolysis is to be found in the healthy persons and most cases of internal diseases without any decrease in capil-lary resistance. 2. CPPA and fibrinolysis of serum are to be found in various allergic diseases including drug allergy, subacute bacterial endocarditis, liver cir-rhosis, malignant neoplasma, collagen disease, and capillary toxikosis etc. 3. Increased capillary permeability is a common clinical symptom in patients with signs of CPPA of serum and fibrinolysis. 4. CPPA of serum should be considered to result from activation of fibrinolysin in plasma and digestion of plasma protein.
In my studies on the significance of fibrinolysis and the serum CPPA in the mechanism of the Arthus reaction and the Shwartzman phenomenon, I have discovered that: 1. Fibrinolysis occurred both in the Arthus reaction and the Shwartz-man phenomenon in rabbits and their serum showed marked signs of CPPA. 2. Fracture of a leg of a rabbit resulted in fibrinolysis and a serum CPPA. 3. When the rabbit's leg was fractured after the eliciting injection in the Arthus reaction and the Shwartzman phenomenon, the local tissue reaction was stronger than in case of control rabbits. 4. Sulfapyridine completely inhibited the CPPA of serum. 5. The rabbits treated with sulfapyridine showed a less Arthus reaction than those not treated with SP. 6. From these results, it is to be inferred that activated fibrinolysin and CPPA play a certain role in the Arthus reaction and the Shwartzman phenomenon.
The electrical excitability of the eye and the time courses of changes in the electrical excitability after the illumination of 2 seconds or a flash of light were investigated for white light in a normal subject and a case of congenital achromatopsia, which belonged to the so-called rod-mono-chromat in type. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The change in the achromat's electrical excitability after light-adaptation is much slighter than that of the normal subject. 2. The data presented, so far as the photopic vision is concerned, are consistent with the classical view that the cone-process is lacking in the achromat, and that vision is mediated entirely by rod-process. It merits attention, however, that the optimum conditions in which the rod-process of the achromat is most evidently at work are considerably differnt from those of normal subjects. 3. Another process besides the rod-one has been found in the retina of the achromat. The process has some properties characteristic of the cone-process and is at work only at lower intensities of illumination. The work reported here was done under the auspices of Prof. Y. Kurachi, and much of the work was suggested by Prof. K. Motokawa. We wish to ex-press our sincerest thanks to them for their valuable advices and guidances.
A device is described for taking sharp x-ray images of the lungs of crying and restless infants under 3 years of age. Directly before the tube opening of a condenser discharge x-ray machine a lead shutter with a transverse slit-like opening 5mm. wide is mounted to operate like a focal plane shutter. When released electrically from the control panel it falls downward 7cm. after first closing the filament and high voltage primary circuits. The exposure in any given point on the film from the resulting x-ray emission is limited by the lead shutter to between 1/200 and 1/400 of a second determined both theoretically from standard formulas and experimentally. Test films of infants' chests were made with a full wave rectified unit (0.1 sec. exposure), a condenser discharge unit (0.05 sec. exposure) and a condenser discharge unit with a slit shutter. Details in the former films were often too indistinct for clinical evaluation whereas the details in the latter were considerably better than that obtained by conventional techniques. Improved detail in chest studies and simplicity of operation of the slit shutter should be of value in clinical and experimental medicine.