(Pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] is a component of the renin-angiotensin system and plays an essential role in the activity of vacuolar H+-ATPase and autophagy. (P)RR is expressed in cancer cells. However, the relationship among (P)RR, apoptosis and autophagy in the treatment of anti-cancer drugs has not been clarified. The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of anti-cancer drugs with autophagy-promoting activity on (P)RR expression in cancer cells. MCF-7 breast cancer cells and A549 lung cancer cells were treated with carboplatin or paclitaxel, and the expression of (P)RR, apoptosis markers and autophagy markers were assessed by RT-qPCR, western blot analysis and immunocytochemistry. Expression levels of (P)RR mRNA and soluble (P)RR protein were increased by carboplatin or paclitaxel in a dose-dependent manner. Immunofluorescence staining of (P)RR was increased in both MCF-7 and A549 cells treated by carboplatin or paclitaxel. Apoptosis induction was shown by elevated BAX/BCL2 mRNA levels and increased active caspase3-positive cells. Moreover, autophagy induction was confirmed by increased levels of autophagy-associated mRNAs and LC3B-II proteins. (P)RR knockdown by (P)RR-specific siRNA suppressed the cell viability in MCF-7 cells and A549 cells under the treatment of carboplatin or paclitaxel, suggesting that (P)RR deficiency inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells in a pathway different from carboplatin or paclitaxel. The present study showed that the expression of (P)RR mRNA and soluble (P)RR was increased by anti-cancer drugs with autophagy-promoting activity. Upregulated (P)RR and autophagy may constitute a stress adaptation that protects cancer cells from apoptosis.
Bronchial carcinoid is a rare malignant tumor that is categorized as a typical carcinoid or atypical carcinoid. Many institutions use flexible bronchoscopy for diagnosis. However, due to the hemorrhagic nature of the tumor, the amount of specimen obtained is often small, making it difficult to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The use of rigid bronchoscopy may not only contribute to obtaining a diagnosis but also be beneficial in the treatment plan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of rigid bronchoscopic interventions for the diagnosis and treatment of bronchial carcinoids. All patients with bronchial carcinoids who underwent rigid bronchoscopic intervention under general anesthesia at our institution between June 2006 and August 2018 were analyzed retrospectively. Eight patients [3 men and 5 women; median age, 71 years (range 45-82 years)] were eligible for the analysis. None of the cases had accurate subtyping preoperatively before intervention. In contrast, all cases were diagnosed as carcinoid with subtypes (5 patients had typical carcinoid and 3 had atypical carcinoid) following rigid bronchoscopic intervention. All respiratory symptoms improved immediately after the procedure. One instance of bleeding occurred, and was easily controlled by argon plasma coagulation and intraluminal administration of epinephrine under flexible and rigid bronchoscopy. Four patients (3 with typical carcinoid and 1 with atypical carcinoid) underwent radical surgery sequentially, and no recurrences were observed. We conclude that rigid bronchoscopic intervention is safe and effective for accurate diagnosis and improvement of respiratory symptoms in patients with bronchial carcinoids.
Gastric cancer is the one of the most lethal malignancies of digestive system. Identifying molecular biomarkers is invaluable in help predicting clinical outcomes and developing targeted chemotherapies. GINS complex subunit 2 (GINS2) plays an essential role in the initiation and elongation of DNA replication. Although there have been studies revealing the prognostic significance of GINS2 in breast cancer and lung cancer, its involvement and function in gastric cancer need to be elucidated. We retrospectively enrolled a cohort of gastric adenocarcinoma patients after surgical resection (n = 123). By analyzing the mRNA and protein levels of GINS2 in tissue samples, we found that GINS2 presented a higher expression in tumor tissues than in adjacent normal stomach tissues. Besides, GINS2 level was positively correlated with tumor size and gastric adenocarcinoma tumor stage, implying its potential role as a tumor promoter. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified that patients with lower GINS2 showed a better overall survival compared to those with higher GINS2 expression. In addition, cellular and xenograft experiments confirmed the role of GINS2 in facilitating tumor proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. To our knowledge, this is the initial finding on GINS2 in promoting gastric adenocarcinoma progression. In conclusion, our study revealed a pro-oncogenic role of GINS2 in gastric cancer.
A 76-year-old woman with unstable angina underwent coronary stent implantation. At the same time, rosuvastatin therapy was started. However, she experienced repeated in-stent restenosis (ISR). Treatment with a proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor along with rosuvastatin (5 mg/day) reduced plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to 10 mg/dL, but failed to prevent further ISR. Eventually, an increase in the rosuvastatin dose to the permitted maximum of 20 mg/day succeeded in preventing further in-stent restenosis. Rather than using PCSK9 inhibitors, intensive statin treatment, using the maximum dose of statins, should be prioritized for the secondary prevention of coronary artery disease.
Vitamin D attenuates inflammatory responses to viral respiratory infections. Hence, vitamin D deficiency may be a highly significant prognostic factor for severity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. To evaluate the complications and mortality in different vitamin D status groups in COVID-19 hospitalized patients, we conducted this retrospective study on 646 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in Shahid Modarres Hospital, Tehran, Iran from 16th March 2020 until 25th February 2021. Overall, patients with vitamin D deficiency, insufficiency and sufficiency were 16.9%, 43.6% and 39.5%, respectively. The presence of comorbidity, length of hospitalization, ICU admission, and invasive mechanical ventilation requirement and overall complications were significantly more in patients with vitamin D deficiency (p-value < 0.001). 46.8% (51/109) of vitamin D deficient patients died due to the disease, whilst the mortality rate among insufficient and sufficient vitamin D groups was 29.4% (83/282) and 5.5% (14/255), respectively. In univariate analysis, age > 60 years (odds ratio (OR) = 6.1), presence of comorbidity (OR = 10.7), insufficient vitamin D status (OR = 7.2), and deficient vitamin D status (OR = 15.1) were associated with increase in COVID-19 mortality (p-value < 0.001). Finally, the multivariate analysis adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities indicated vitamin D deficiency as an independent risk factor for mortality (OR = 3.3, p-value = 0.002). Vitamin D deficiency is a strong risk factor for mortality and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Vitamin D supplementation may be able to prevent or improve the prognosis of COVID-19 during this pandemic.
The optimal Young’s modulus of material of orthopedic devices for fracture treatment is still unknown. The purpose of present study was to evaluate the impacts of intramedullary nails composed of a titanium alloy with low Young’s modulus, on accelerating fracture healing compared with stainless steel with high Young’s modulus. A β-type TiNbSn alloy with a low Young’s modulus close to that of human cortical bone was developed for clinical application. TiNbSn alloy with a Young’s modulus of 45 GPa and stainless steel with a Young’s modulus of 205 GPa were compared, with respect to the impacts on fracture healing. Fracture and fixation using intramedullary nail were performed on the right tibiae of C57BL/6 mice. The assessment of bone healing was performed via micro-computed tomography, histomorphometry, and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In micro-computed tomography, larger bone volumes were observed in the fracture callus treated with TiNbSn alloy in comparison with those treated with stainless steel. Histological assessments confirmed accelerated cartilage absorption and new bone formation in the TiNbSn alloy group compared with the stainless steel group. The expression of Col1a1, Runx2, Dkk1, and Acp5 was higher in the TiNbSn alloy group, while that of Col2a1 and Col10a1 was lower in the late phase. The present study demonstrated that the fixation by intramedullary nails with TiNbSn alloy offered an accelerated fracture healing with promotion of bone formation via increased Runx2 expression. TiNbSn alloy might be a promising material for fracture treatment devices.
Antibody deficiency is a type of primary immunodeficiency that often manifests as primary hypogammaglobulinemia, with or without repeated infections. Although primary immunodeficiency appears to be contrary to autoimmunity, they usually occur simultaneously, and the specific pathogenesis remains unknown. We herein describe an adult patient with autoimmune manifestations and recurrent infections. The case was characterized by a sustained decrease in serum immunoglobulin A, accompanied by decreased T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets in the peripheral blood and the presence of antinuclear and anti-SSA antibodies. Whole-exome sequencing for the patient revealed two spontaneous mutations in GATA2 (c.1084C>T) and STAT5B (c.1924A>C). This case report provides evidence that mutations in the GATA2 and STAT5B genes may be pathogenic in primary immunodeficiency and provides genetic evidence for the possible pathogenesis of primary immunodeficiency with autoimmune symptoms. However, further studies are needed to confirm the causal relationship.
Poor medication adherence of osteoporosis patients is a major global medical problem because of its negative impact on health outcomes and quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate how differences in dosing regimens influence adherence to oral bisphosphonates using data from a large health insurance provider in Japan. This was a retrospective observational study using claims data obtained between October 2012 and January 2018, from the community-based National Health Insurance program of a large city in Japan. The data included in the analysis were obtained from women 60 to 74 years old whose oral bisphosphonate prescription was detected between April 2013 and February 2017. Treatment adherence was monitored from the initial prescription for one year, i.e., up to January 2018. Primary comparisons among the daily-dosing, weekly-dosing, and monthly-dosing groups were based on the mean medication possession ratio (MPR). Data from a total of 3,958 patients were analyzed. The numbers of patients aged 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 were 425, 1,400, and 2,133, respectively. The highest mean MPR was 69.4% for the monthly-dosing of bisphosphonates, followed by the weekly-dosing at 63.5%, and daily-dosing at 57.2%. Using the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn-Bonferroni correction, there were significant differences in mean MPR for daily versus weekly (p < 0.01), daily versus monthly (p < 0.001), and weekly versus monthly dosing regimens (p < 0.05). These results suggest significantly more patients adhere to a monthly or weekly regimen of bisphosphonates in the treatment of osteoporosis than to a daily regimen.