In the process of searching for suspected person, there is a case where an eyewitness looks through some photographs of criminal's face, or mug shots, to identify witnessed suspect's face or a searcher examines some mug shots in order to find some photographs that seem similar to a montage. However the eyewitness or the searcher has a heavy load to look through many photographs. It is widely known that this load causes a marked decline in human's ability to identify photographs. Therefore there is a need for a facial image retrieval system that can help humans to identify the facial images. An interactive facial image retrieval system combined the retrieval using linguistic keywords and the simulated breeding was proposed in order to reduce the user's load. The system performs the retrieval by using the impressive adjective first, and then retrieves the facial images by using simulated breeding that can treat the user's subjectivity. However, this method still requires the user to do heavy work. In order to improve the system, we add a retrieval method using Euclidean distance to the system for retrieving the facial images that are displayed for the user's first selection. In our experiment, firstly displayed facial images in the proposed system are similar to the target, which leads to the reduction of user's load.
At present, the conditions of the location and the optimal arrangements for retail stores of small market areas are examined with the several surveys. The surveys are important because the proceeds are influenced largely with the selection of the location. However, costs, time and experience are necessary in the surveys. For this reason, this research is intended for the retail stores of small market areas which expend a great deal of money for the surveys. The retail stores of small market areas in this paper are convenience stores. The purpose of this paper is to estimate the optimum number of convenience stores by computer simulation. We adopted the agent model. We constructed an agent model that had the customer agent, the shop agent and the landscape with the kind of necessary minimum parameters. And, we were able to make the simulation environment that reflected the real world. As a result, we could estimate the optimum number of convenience stores by simulations.
This paper proposes a fast clustering method for time-series data based on average time sequence vector. A clustering procedure based on an exhaustive search method is time-consuming although its result typically exhibits high quality. BIRCH, which reduces the number of examples by data squashing based on a data structure CF (Clustering Feature) tree, represents an effective solution for such a method when the data set consists of numerical attributes only. For time-series data, however, a straightforward application of BIRCH based on a Euclidean distance for a pair of sequences, miserably fails since such a distance typically differs from human's perception. A dissimilarity measure based on DTW (Dynamic Time Warping) is desirable, but to the best of our knowledge no methods have been proposed for time-series data in the context of data squashing. In order to circumvent this problem, we propose DTWS (Dynamic Time Warping Squashed) tree, which employs a dissimilarity measure based on DTW, and compresses time sequences to the average time sequence vector. An average time sequence vector is obtained by a novel procedure which estimates correct shrinkage of a result of DTW. Experiments using the Australian sign language data demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in terms of correctness of clustering, while its degradation of time efficiency is negligible.
This paper describes the knowledge representation of the melody and rhythm in koto songs based on the structure of the domain: the scale, melisma (the melody in a syllable), and bar. We have encoded koto scores and extracted 2,3,4-note melodic patterns sequentially from the voice part of koto scores. The 2,3,4-note patterns used in the melisma are limited and the percentages of top patterns are high. The 3,4-note melodic patterns are examined at each scale degree. These patterns are more restricted than the patterns that are possible under the constraint of the scale. These typical patterns on the scale represent the knowledge of koto players. We have analyzed rhythms in two different ways. We have extracted rhythms depending on each melodic pattern, while we have extracted rhythms depending on each bar. The former are complicated and the latter are typical. This result indicates that koto players recognize melodic patterns and rhythmic patterns independently. Our analyses show the melodic patterns and rhythmic patterns that are acquired by koto players. These patterns will be applied to the description of variations of the melisma to build a score database. These patterns will also be applied to a composition and education. The melodic patterns can be extracted from other genres of Japanese traditional music, foreign old folk songs or chants by using this method.
In order to realize advanced man-machine interfaces, it is desired to develop a system that can infer the mental state of human users and then return appropriate responses. As the first step toward the above goal, we developed a system capable of inferring human tactics in a simple game played between the system and a human. We present a machine learning system that plays a color expectation game. The system infers the tactics of the opponent, and then decides the action based on the result. We employed a modified version of classifier system like XCS in order to design the system. In addition, three methods are proposed in order to accelerate the learning rate. They are a masking method, an iterative method, and tactics templates. The results of computer experiments confirmed that the proposed methods effectively accelerate the machine learning. The masking method and the iterative method are effective to a simple strategy that considers only a part of past information. However, study speed of these methods is not enough for the tactics that refers to a lot of past information. For the case, the tactics template was able to settle the study rapidly when the tactics is identified.