The helminthic infections that can cause eosinophilic meningitis (EM) share many of the characteristics of emerging infectious diseases, such as the influences of international trade and travel on pathogen dissemination in a warming ecosystem. In order to assess the evolving epidemiology of EM worldwide, define the case diagnosis of EM based on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy, and stratify the causes of EM as infectious versus non-infectious; this review analyzes scientific articles selected by MEDLINE search, 1966-2009. In addition, this review compares the clinical manifestations, management, and outcomes of the most common causes of helminthic EM worldwide in order to alert clinicians to populations at increased risk of helminthic EM as a result of age, ethnicity, lifestyle, food choices, location of permanent residence, or recent travel. The most common helminthic causes of EM worldwide are angiostrongyliasis and gnathostomiasis. Angiostrongyliasis, a rodent zoonosis endemic in Southeast Asia, was imported to North and South America and the Caribbean following the embarkation of infected rodents from cargo ships. Gnathostomiasis, a zoonosis of wild carnivores in Southeast Asia and Latin America, has been recently recognized as an emerging cause of EM in travelers returning to England and the United States (US). Baylisascariasis, a North American raccoon zoonosis, is an additional, although unusual, emerging cause of EM, that has extended distribution range across the US since the 1980s, and was exported to Japan by the exotic pet trade. Although EM occurs worldwide, its differential diagnosis is limited to infectious and non-infectious etiologies with non-infectious etiologies, such as intracranial hardware and malignancies, causing more cases, especially in regions that are not endemic for the most common causative parasites. Most cases of helminthic EM can be prevented by public health education, human behavior modification, and proper food preparation.
A simple, sensitive and reproducible fluorometry method was developed to quantify anti-erythrocytic auto-antibody in the sera of semi-immune mice. The level of anti-erythrocytic auto-antibody measured using fluorometry was significantly higher in sera of Plasmodium berghei ANKA infected mice than the uninfected, p‹0.0001. This result correlates significantly with the standard ELISA assay, p‹0.0001, r2=0.7766. Both methods show significant correlation with regard to extent of Hb loss, p‹0.006 (r2=0.33) (fluorometry method) and p‹0.0001, r2=0.30 (ELISA). Thus the fluorometry method may serve as an alternative to standard ELISA assay and can be modified to suit similar objectives.
Proper hand hygiene among heath care workers (HCWs) is known to reduce hand associated infections (HAIs) caused by transient flora. Using an interview guide as a tool for data collection, 30 herbalists (key informants) were interviewed to obtain information on how they maintain hand hygiene as they handle patients in Bungoma District, Kenya. Through an ethnobotanical approach, plants used as sources of herbal antiseptics were documented and extracts from the most frequently used species tested for microbial growth inhibitory activity against Staphyloccocus aureus and Escherichia coli. The results revealed that herbalists used diverse hand hygiene procedures, but the most common was hand washing with water and soap sometimes followed by rinsing with traditionally prepared herbal antiseptics. Unfortunately, about 6% of the respondents did not have any hand hygiene regime. Nine plant species were reported to be used as sources of herbal antiseptics but three were particularly popular: Rhoicissus revoilii Planch, tuber (Vitaceae); Microglossa pyrifolia Lam. (O.Kuntze), leaves (Asteraceae); Croton macrostachyus Del. bark (Euphorbiaceae). Water extracts of Croton macrostachyus showed inhibitory growth activity against E. coli as well as S. aureus, while Microglossa pyrifolia and Rhoicissus revoilii only showed inhibitory activity against E. coli and S. aureus respectively. Considering the number of respondents lacking any proper hand hygiene regime, it important to raise awareness regarding the importance of hand cleaning among the herbalists in this region
Background and Aim: The biological functions of anti-inflammatory cytokines appear to be crucial in the immune response. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of the anti-inflammatory (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokine response in malaria HIV and HIV-malaria coinfected individuals with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Methods: Levels of IL-4 and IL-10 of 111 malaria-infected, 97 HIV-malaria co-infected and 79 HIV seropositive subjects as well as 73 controls were determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. CD4 and CD8 cells were counted using the Dynabeads T4-T8 quantification protocol while haematological parameters were estimated using standard haematological techniques. Results: IL-4 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in malaria patients (8.18±6.41pg⁄ml and 26.29±12.08pg⁄ml) than in HIV (5.208±1.69pg⁄ml) or HIV-malaria (4.415±3.23pg⁄ml) coinfected subjects (P‹0.05). On the other hand, the mean CD4 and CD8 counts (1434±331.05 and 2003±405.73 cells⁄μl respectively) of malaria infected individuals were significantly elevated (P‹0.05) as compared to HIV, HIV-malaria and control groups. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that malaria antigen may initiate a higher anti-inflammatory cytokine response than HIV or HIV associated with malaria.
A total of 300 stool samples collected from 213 Japanese residents of Egypt were examined microscopically. Among these samples, 39 were judged positive for heterophyid eggs. Sixty seven residents were examined repeatedly. The prevalence of heterophyid eggs revealed by the first examination samples was 8.5% (18⁄213) whereas that revealed by the second follow-up was 24% (16⁄67). The interval between the first and second examination was one year in 58 cases and 2 years in 9 cases. The association of infection with the length of stay in Egypt was evident. Positivity among new residents (period of stay in Egypt ‹ 1 year) was as low as 3% (2⁄60). Positive conversion from new residents was observed in 28% (7⁄25), indicating a positive association between heterophyid infection and the length of stay in Egypt among Japanese residents of that country.