The cholesterol contents of the a. posterior cerebral, a. subclavia sinistra, a. common carotid sinistra, a. coronar, and a. renal were determined in 6 nondiabetic and 21 diabetic autopsy subjects. The average ages of the nondiabetic and diabetic groups were 59.0 and 64.5 years, respectively. The dry weight of the arteries per length in the diabetic group was 1.40 to 2.96 times greater than that in the nondiabetic group. The contents of cholesterol in the arteries of the diabetic group were also 1.07 to 4.10 times greater than those of the nondiabetic group. The dry weight of the arteries per length in the nondiabetic group and the contents of cholesterol in the arteries could be expressed by the following regression equation: y=0.645 + 0.903x (r=-0.785, p<0.05) for the nondiabetic group, and y=2.470 +1.344x (r=0.917, p<0.001) for the diabetic group. The cholesterol content in the arteries between the diabetic group and the nondiabetic group could be expressed by the following regression equation: y=4.303-0.558x (r=-0.843, p<0.002). These results suggest that arteriosclerosis is enhanced in diabetics, especially in arteries where the cholesterol content is low.