High doses of atropine sulfate have a parasympatholytic effect, but low doses have a parasympathomimetic effect. Variations in the R-R interval in electrocardiogram were studied before and after low-dose atropine injection in 16 healthy controls and 24 diabetic patients. The R-R interval variations during deep breathing were significantly prolonged by low-dose atropine administration in diabetics without sensory or autonomic neuropathy. The variations were also prolonged in diabetics without sensory neuropathy, but with autonomic nerve dysfunction. However in diabetics with sensory neuropathy, there was no response to low-dose atropine injection. These findings suggest that a reserve capacity of the parasympathetic nerve function is retained in diabetics without sensory neuropathy.
This report describes the variation in glucose content in sweat following changes in blood glucose. In order to change the level of glucose in blood in normal subjects, a 50 g Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) was conducted. GTTs for sampling were put done several times on separate occasions. Blood or sweat was sampled at intervals of 30 minutes for two hours during a GTT. Glucose in sweat, sampled from the head of the subject in a steam bath, was measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). In the fasting condition the average values of sweat and blood glucose were 0.25mg/dl and 89mg/dl, respectively. At 60 minutes after oral administration of glucose, the sweat value increased to 0.45mg/dl, and the blood value rose to 149mg/dl. These sweat values were by one to two orders of magnitude lower than those reported elsewhere. This discrepancy may be ascribed to the differences between classical and modern techniques. The previously reported values may include some erroneous factors such as coucomitant reducing substances. HPLC enabled us to measure minute changes of glucose content in sweat following blood glucose level. Blood glucose may be estimated transcutaneously using a correlation between blood and sweat, if a statistically significant relationship between the two can be established.