When undertaking research on the musical perception of the ancients, simply carrying out examination from the perspective of music theory is clearly an inadequate method. It is necessary to take into consideration the influence of a variety of elements on music, for example, that of religion, philosophy, ethics, astronomy, superstition, magic, and so on. In this article, a general survey of the historical relationship between the concept of Yin-yang, a philosophy that was widely prevalent throughout China and was part of the common knowledge of its people, and the sanfen sunyi-fa _??__??__??__??__??_, the method for calculation of the chromatic gamut by means of alternate subtraction and addition of one-third to the length of a vibrating string or pipe which lies at the basis of Chinese music theory. The method for calculation of the twelve pitches by means of the sanfen sunyi-fa was described first in the Lüshi-chunqiu _??__??__??__??_, a book on cosmology written in ca. 239 B. C. by a group of scholars gathered by Lü Buwei _??__??__??_. In this source, the sanfen sunyi-fa method is restricted to music theory, and does not include any elements associated with Yin-yang philosophy. In the Han period (206 B. C. -A. D. 220), the Yin-yang theory came to exercise a strong influence on a variety of academic fields. Along with this, the Yin-yang theory brought about a great change in the sanfen sunyi-fa method. Shangsheng _??__??_, or superior generation according to which the addition of one-third to the length of a vibrating string or pipe produces a pitch a fourth lower, and xiasheng _??__??_, or inferior generation according to which the subtraction of one-third produces a pitch a fifth higher, came to be associated respectively with Yang and Yin, so that the generation of pitches was regarded as a phenomenon related to the circulation of Yin and Yang. In order to explain this phenomenon effectively, a variety of methods were devised. Scholars such as Jing Fang _??__??_, Liu Xin _??__??_, and Zheng Xuan _??__??_ attempted conjunctions of acoustics with accounts of the Yijing _??__??_ (‘The Book of Changes’), the calendar and divination, all of which are strongly connected with Yin-yang philosophy. After the Han period, the sanfen sunyi-fa method ceased to develop autonomously as an aspect of music theory, but underwent transformation under the influence of elements unrelated to music. The Song period (960-1279) scholar Chen Xiangdao _??__??__??_ succeeded in reconciling the sanfen sunyi-fa method with Yin-yang philosophy without discrepancy. His theory, however, was of a conceptual nature, and provided no contribution to the field of music itself. In spite of this, his method was endorsed by Zhuzi _??__??_ (Zhu Xi _??__??_) and later scholars. The Qing period (1644-1911) scholar Bi Yuan _??__??_ demonstrated the existence of mistakes in the text of the Lüshi-chunqiu and annotations of it made by Gao You _??__??_, indicating that he too relied on the theory of Chen Xiangdao. In this article, a general survey of the changes in the sanfen sunyi-fa method has made it possible for us to understand one aspect of the idea of music as possessed by the ancient Chinese. This method, a theory that lies at the basis of Chinese music, has in almost all cases been discussed in terms of a factor external to music, and undergone transformation under its influence.
This article deals with the historical development of gagaku of the middle ages. It is based on a concept developed in the author's masters thesis submitted to Ochanomizu University in 1982, and follows on a series of articles published recently by the author that attempt to clarify the nature of gagaku activities at the fifteenth-century Imperial court by reference to the diaries of court nobles as chief historical source material (“Ongaku shiryo toshite no chusei no nikki ni tsuite” [‘Medieval diaries as historical source materials for music’], MLAJ NEWSLETTER, ed. by the Music Library Association of Japan, Vol. 6 No. 1, May 1984; “Jugo-seiki no gagaku-kai” [‘The gagaku community of the fifteenth century’], Ibid, Vol. 6 Nos. 2, 4, 5, 6, Vol. 7 Nos. 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, July 1984-March 1986). In this article, focus is set on the court gagaku musician Ayanokoji Aritoshi (Oei 26th year  -Meio 4th year ), a gagaku performer of the fifteenth-century Imperial court born in a family authorized to transmit the gagaku vocal genres (including kagura-uta, saibara, roei, imayo, etc.) in a hereditary fashion. Detailed study is made of his life as a transmitter of the gagaku tradition and his activities in terms of this vocation. In the field of Japanese music history it has generally been believed that during the middle ages gagaku was replaced in terms of popularity by other musical forms of the time, such as heikyoku, dengaku, sarugaku and no. It is a fact, however, that gagaku remained popular among the court nobles of the period. The gagaku of this period is yet to be studied sufficiently. The present author believes that it was due to the efforts of the transmitters of the art, such as Aritoshi, that the tradition of gagaku has survived to the present day. It is hence of value to investigate and evaluate their vocational activities. In terms of this theme, the greatest concern of the present author lies in the question of the nature of their musical activities and their everyday life at court. These court nobles, the patrons of the art, left behind diaries that describe their ordinary daily experiences and knowledge. These diaries by their very nature deserve consideration as primary historical source materials of relevance to the purpose of this article. The fifteenth century was an age of transition from the middle ages to the early modern period. It is characterized by a lack of political stability and the frequent occurrence of civil wars, such as the lengthy Onin no ran (Onin disturbance, 1467-77). During this time, the leaders of the Muromachi shogunate and feudal warriors respected and supported the sophisticated culture of the nobles of the Imperial court as they strived to maintain their cultural heritage. Although the existence of gagaku was threatened by the chaos of the wars of the period, it continued to survive due to the efforts of those associated with the court. The gagaku society of the fifteenth century has been divided by the present author into the following six historical periods. First period: Early Oei period (1401-1408). The period during which the third Ashikaga shogun, Yoshimitsu, ruled over both the noble and warrior classes after realizing the union of the Northern and Southern dynasties. He acted too as the leader of the gagaku society from the date of his first lessons on the sho ( 1379). Second period: Mid and latter Oei period (1409-1427). The period in which the Emperor Gokomatsu, following the death of Yoshimitsu under whose protection he grew to manhood, was actively involved in gagaku activities both during the years of his reign, as well as in the succeeding years following his abdication of the throne to Emperor Shoko in 1412. The
This is a report on a continuing study begun five years ago by members of a study group associated with the Seminar of Ethnomusicology, Music Research Institute of the Osaka College of Music (Inobe Kiyoshi, Hiroi Eiko, Miyagawa Noriko, Hirayama Keiko and myself) on the music of Osaka's Tenjin festival (Tenjin-matsuri). It is a summer festival held annually on 24th-25th July, with a preparatory ceremony on the 24th and central celebrations on the 25th, and is associated with the Shinto shrine Tenman-gu (Osaka-shi Kita-ku) and celebrated on the Yodo River, which runs through Osaka. At the time of the festival, the bridges that span the river, Tenjin-bashi, Tenma-bashi, and Kawasaki-bashi, throng with people there to see the parade of boats and fireworks of the festival. Said to originate from the tenth-century, the festival reached its full form by the Genroku yearperiod (late 17th-century), and has been Osaka's main festival for a long period of time. Research on the festivals of Japan has in the past tended to concentrate on those on the fringes of its culture, and only lately have those of the cities been taken up by research groups from the viewpoint of urban anthropology. The Osaka Tenjin festival is no exception; despite its fame, it has not attracted much attention. Such is particularly true of its music and performing arts, which have not yet been dealt with by ethonologists and researchers on folkmusic. The festival is supported in both material and spiritual terms by religious associations and other groups numbering in all about fifty. They also bring life to the sound world of the festival, which is truly multi-faceted: moyoshi-daiko, drums played by six youths on a platform supported on the shoulders of more than one-hundred men, and symbol of the festival; danjiri-bayashi, festival music that sounds all day long; sounds of flute, drum and bamboo of the shishi-mai (lion-dance) and yotsudake-odori (four-bamboo dance) of the children; drum and gong sounds of the dondoko-bune, a boat with thirty rowers that travels up-and-down the river; the stately strains of the gagaku and kagura associated with Shinto ceremonies. There are many more musics contributing to the sound world of the festival. These musics do not take place in a linear fashion, but are super-imposed on one another, covering a large area of space at the same time. This may be typical of urban festivals. The players of the music, too, range from amateur members of the religious associations, who transmit the moyoshi-daiko tradition, to professionals and semiprofessionals who are paid to participate in danjiri-bayashi as well as gagaku and kagura. Central to the music of the festival are the moyoshi-daiko and danjiri-bayashi, the interrelationship of which is of great interest. Our research group has already published a paper on the former, its history, performance structures and techniques, and musical characteristics (“Moyoshi-daiko no baai —tenjin-matsuri no ongaku Part 1—” [‘Moyoshi-daiko — music of the Tenjin festival, Part 1’], Ongaku Kenkyu [‘Music Research’], Bulletin of the Music Research Institute of the Osaka College of Music, Vol. 4, 1986). It is played on instruments belonging to the shrine and hence gains a type of sacredness, and the six youths who play it are required first of all to concentrate on playing together, in a way in which the act of beating the drum and each single sound produced is given weight. The music of the danjiri-bayashi, however, is of a light and rhythmic feeling, and is played energetically. Lastly, it should be noted that although we have dealt up until recently with a strictly synchronic study of the festival, we have now begun a search for the roots of the music and performing arts of the festival. In