東洋音楽研究
Online ISSN : 1884-0272
Print ISSN : 0039-3851
ISSN-L : 0039-3851
1988 巻 , 52 号
選択された号の論文の7件中1~7を表示しています
  • 安田 文吉
    1988 年 1988 巻 52 号 p. 1-42,L4
    発行日: 1987/11/30
    公開日: 2010/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    Tokiwazu-bushi developed as a genre of music of the kabuki theatre from the time of its inception in Enkyo 4th year (1747) by Tokiwazu Mojitayu (1709-1781), which followed the prohibition in Edo of the bungo-bushi of his former master, Miyakoji Bungonojo (1660?-1740). In particular, from the Meiwa through Tenmei year-periods (ca. 1764-1788) it became regular practice for a shosagoto (dance drama, lit. ‘pose piece’) accompanied by one of the bungo-related joruri styles (i. e. tokiwazu-bushi, tomimoto-bushi, and later kiyomoto-bushi) to be inserted into a kabuki play, which brought about their rapid development. Many of the tokiwazu pieces originally conceived as dance accompaniment were later performed as sujoruri, that is, as pieces performed without dance. From about this time, dance had also begun to develop independently, so that the shosagotoi were passed on and performed separately as dance pieces. As a consequence of these circumstances, demand for shohoni (play texts) and keikobon (lesson texts) of tokiwazu pieces grew substantially, with the result that from about the Bunka-Bunsei year-periods (1804-1829) they came to be printed in volume, and a publisher specializing in tokiwazu pieces appeared. This article treats the history of development of tokiwazu-bushi by means of examination of surviving printed editions. The piece “Seki-no-to” has been chosen for the reason that the number of extant shohon and keikobon for the piece, at a total of fifty-three, is the largest for all tokiwazu pieces.
    Seki-no-to”, which has the longer formal name “Tsumoru koi yuki no seki-no-to”, was performed for the first time at the Kiri-za theatre in Edo (modern-day Tokyu) in Tenmei 4th year (1784) at its annual kao-mise (‘face-showing’) performance, a type of performance in which a company of actors was introduced to the public. It was sung by 2nd-generation Tokiwazu Mojitayu (1756-1799) and formed the dance piece at the conclusion of the second half (nibanme-ogiri-shosagoto) of the programme “Junihitoe Komachi-zakura”. It met with overwhelming acclaim at this first performance, and has been performed repeatedly since as a dance piece at the kabuki theatre and as an independent tokiwazu piece, gaining a reputation as the most important of all tokiwazubushi pieces. It is exceptional not only for the volume of its surviving editions, but also for the number of its performances, as recorded in two published chronologies of performances in the Edo period, Kinsei hogaku nenpyo (‘Edo-period Japanese music chronology’, in 3 vols., published by the Committee for Investigation of Japanese Music of Tokyo Academy of Music; the volume dealing with tokiwazu, tomimoto and kiyomoto was published in 1912 and deals with the period 1730-1867) and Kabuki nenpyo (‘Kabuki chronology’, in 8 vols., by Ihara Toshiro and published by Iwanami Shoten from 1956 to 1963; covers the period 1559-1907).
    Turning our attention now to surviving texts of “Seki-no-to”, it should be noted firstly that the shohon associated with the first performance does not survive. The oldest extant keikobon has a hand-written note with the date Bunsei 9th year (1826). However, the renmei list of tayu (singers) and shamisen players given in it includes performers of tokiwazu-bushi that appeared together in about Kansei 9th year (1797), so it appears that the first printing of this keikobon was made at about that time. Although this may be connected in some way with the performances of “Seki-no-to” featuring the actor Ichikawa Omezo of the same year, the fact
  • とくに西洋音楽関係の訳稿を中心に
    塚原 康子
    1988 年 1988 巻 52 号 p. 43-77,L6
    発行日: 1987/11/30
    公開日: 2010/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    This article provides a detailed introduction to the musical materials of Udagawa Yoan (1798-1846) and undertakes an examination of them from the perspective of the introduction and reception of foreign culture. Although Yoan is well known as a scholar of European studies involved in the introduction of chemistry and botany from the West, little work has been done on his written works dealing with music. In this article, an examination of his draft translations that deal with European music, and their Dutch-language originals, has been undertaken, and comparison has also been made to his works that deal with the music of the Chinese Qing (Ch'ing) dynasty. Two of his draft translations of special importance, one entitled Oranda hoyaku: Yogaku nyumon (‘Translation into Japanese from the Dutch: Introduction to European music’) and one comprising sections dealing with music in Oranda shiryaku (‘Record of Dutch matters’), have been reprinted typographically and appended to the article as reference material (see pp 59-71 and 71-77 of the Japanese text).
    The major results of this examination can be summarized as follows:
    1. In addition to those of Yoan's autograph manuscripts dealing with music that have been mentioned in earlier research, namely Shingaku-ko (‘Examination of the music of the Qing [Ch'ing] dynasty’), Oranda hoyaku: Yogaku nyumon (see above), Taisei gakuritsu-ko (‘Examination of the musical pitches of the Great West’), Gakuritsu kenkyu shiryo (‘Materials for research on musical pitches’), and Teito hiko tozai gakuritsu (‘Secret manuscript on the musical pitches of East and West’), it was ascertained that major accounts dealing with European music can also be found in parts of Oranda shiryaku (see above). In addition, Yoan copied parts of the 16th-century gagaku compendium Taigen-sho, and possessed for reference purposes Onritsu-ron (‘Treatise on musical pitch’) of the Japanese Edo-period Confucian scholar Kondo Seigai. All of Yoan's manuscripts dealing with music are first drafts, and it is clear that he was not a specialist in musical matters. The materials are valuable, however, since there are no other materials from the late Edo period of this scope that are indicative in concrete terms of the various aspects of the contemporary reception of foreign music, especially that of Europe.
    2. The musical materials of Yoan dealt with in this article can be broadly divided into three groups: manuscripts dealing with music of Qing (Ch'ing) dynasty China; draft translations dealing with European music; and Japanese materials on musical pitch either copied or used as reference sources.
    3. Comparison of the two groups of materials dealing with non-Japanese music has shown that those dealing with the music of China are more practical, reflecting Yoan's contact with actual musical activity, since they include traced diagrams of instruments and a collection of texts with musical notation (a manuscript copy of Seishin gakui compiled by Egawa Ren). In contrast to this, his draft translations dealing with European music center on explanations of instruments and pitch theory, matters that can be argued without reference to actual musical practice.
    4. In rendering technical terms used for European music, Yoan limited himself basically to transliteration of the sounds of the words in Japanese, although at the same time contrasting them with the notational signs of Qing (Ch'ing) music and the pitch-names used in gagaku, and making reference to the text Onritsu-ron mentioned above. Although isolated in nature because they deal with Western music, Yoan's draft translations can be viewed as a continuation of the tradition of research on musical pitch as undertaken by the Confucian scholars of Japan's Edo period.
    5. The
  • 言語声調と旋律の関係を中心として
    東 暁子
    1988 年 1988 巻 52 号 p. 79-97,L8
    発行日: 1987/11/30
    公開日: 2010/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
    The primary aim of this article is to clarify the ways in which the framework of melodic construction and the linguistic tones of a text interact in the process by which a melody maintains its melodic identity, and takes as its object a genre of folk-song of the Hakka _??__??_(Ch. Kèjia) of Taiwan, the mountain song (Ch. shange _??__??_). Secondly, an examination has been made of the present distribution of the mountain song, which originally spread from the regions inhabited by the Hakka in the northern part of the island, and treatment has also been made of the special characteristics of the musical activity of the Hakka of Taiwan, which centres on folk-song. This can be viewed as an attempt firstly to analyse the musical phenomena of a particular music-cultural sphere as a sound idiom that includes a model for the making of music, and further to grasp anew the meaning that these sound phenomena hold within the overall context that gives birth to the music.
    Within the mountain song, texts variable in nature are set according to fixed principles of melodic construction. Of three types into which the mountain songs of the Hakka are divided, the type called sankotsú _??__??__??_ (Ch. shangezi) has been dealt with here. After a brief examination of the elements that constitute the framework of melodic construction—the form that performance takes, musical form, verse structure of the texts, and the methods of text-setting, etc. —analysis has been made of the correspondence between melody and linguistic tone pattern, in the cases of two-word phrases and single-word phrases, and in terms of the treatment of the entering tone (_??__??_ Ch. rùsheng) that exists in Hakka languages as it does in many other southern variants of Chinese.
    As a result of this analysis, it has been shown that the melodies of sankotsú folk-songs basically correspond with the linguistic tones of their texts. This does not mean, however, that the movement of the melody agrees completely with the rising and falling intonation of the linguistic tones. At certain points where movement of the melody is limited by the maintenance of its identity as a single song, the influence of linguistic tone is hardly felt. In the case of two-word phrases, there are numerous examples when the second word does not retain the rising and falling movement of the appropriate linguistic tone. Speaking generally, it is rare for the melody to be able to represent all characteristics of any single linguistic tone; it is by expressing part of those characteristics, sometimes by means of rhythm and sometimes by means of pitch change, that contrast with other linguistic tones is effected.
    Consequent upon the results of this analysis is the supposition that the melodies of sankotsú folk-songs are sung according to the linguistic tones of the. Sìxiàn _??__??_ dialect of Hakka. Even those who speak in Hailù _??__??_ dialect appear to conform to the linguistic principles of Sìxiàn dialect as their “sung language”. Since folk-songs of the mountain song variety intrinsically possess many elements that are prescribed by the language of their particular region of origin, it is often said that it is difficult for them to overcome the barrier of language and spread further in geographical terms. If so, the mountain song of the Hakka of Taiwan, which is distributed among people who speak in different dialects of Hakka, would seem to have changed somewhat in character from the original mountain song.
    Next, consideration has been made of the historical process responsible for this distinctive geographical distribution, and of the central role that folk-song, mainly that of the mountain-song type, plays in the traditional musical activity of the people. The Hakka people of Taiwan are immigrants from a number of places on the continent. We may speculate that
  • 大久間 喜一郎
    1988 年 1988 巻 52 号 p. 99-100
    発行日: 1987/11/30
    公開日: 2010/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 加藤 富美子
    1988 年 1988 巻 52 号 p. 103-104,L14
    発行日: 1987/11/30
    公開日: 2010/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 北インドのブラジュ84里巡礼
    田中 多佳子
    1988 年 1988 巻 52 号 p. 104-106,L16
    発行日: 1987/11/30
    公開日: 2010/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
  • 宮川曼魚旧蔵本による
    竹内 道敬
    1988 年 1988 巻 52 号 p. 106-110,L18
    発行日: 1987/11/30
    公開日: 2010/02/25
    ジャーナル フリー
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