The purpose of this paper is to examine the social function of music transmitted in the village communities in the Shimokita region of Aomori Prefecture, in particular from the perspective of enculturation. The learning of a music within a community involves not only that music, but also the learning of various matters that are concomitant with it. This paper will therefore clarify the social structure of the communities in an attempt to understand the state of their music culture. It will then present an interpretation of how music has functioned within communal society, taking as an example the nomai of Ori in Higashidori-mura. A variety of types of folk music are transmitted in the Shimokita region. Almost all of them take the style of geino, that is performing arts, in which music, dance, and theatre come together. These include shishi-kagura (nomai and kagura), kabuki, matsuribayashi, nenbutsu (a type of wasan, colloquial Buddhist music), and several teodori. It is in the latter that the tendencies of the folk music of Shimokita are most clearly reflected. In the neighbouring regions of Tsugaru and Nanbu, folksongs developed as solo vocal pieces into what may be called a stage vocal art. In contrast, in Shimokita, folksongs are sung as an accompaniment to teodori, generally by a number of people together. Percussion instruments, taiko (drums) and kane (a type of small cymbal), are always used as well. The inclination of the music of Shimokita towards geino style is connected closely to the characteristic social structure of the communities of the region. Firstly, the primary industries of Shimokita were restricted by its cool climate and, up to the Second World War, did not produce adequately. For that reason, differences in economic well-being did not develop to the extent of dividing the society into classes. Within the community, the principle of not producing bunke (branch families) was observed, so that the division of property should not result in further poverty. Since the community is made up only of honke (head families), the status within the communities of each ie (family) is equal. One force that brings together these equal ie as a single community is that of the system of communal economy. (For instance, in a fishing community, the catch is sold through the community's fishing cooperative, and the profit is distributed equally between each ie, or used for communal purposes.) Another force is the existence of the ‘age group’. In Shimokita, a type of age grade system can be observed. The members of each ie participate in an appropriate group in accordance with their position in the ie. By doing this, they perform their roles as members of the community. Functions essential to communal life are traditionally distributed between the age groups. Those in festivals and ceremonies are especially well-defined. We may construe here that strong communal relationships of this type are reflected in the music culture of the communities, and further that the people living in them learn of ‘community’ (and, in turn, culture) by means of learning the music. Strong communal relationships between members of equal status were indispensable in the daily life of the Shimokita communities. The people play their part in this ‘community’ by participating in their appropriate age group, where they perform the music of festivals and ceremonies. This music, furthermore, takes the geino style. It is, in other words, music performed not alone but with others of the same age group. What is important in this case is not whether an individual is more skilled than his fellows, but rather whether he can participate in the realization of a geino by adjusting to them. The sense of collectivity or community that can be discerned in the style of the music
1. Introduction This paper examines the current situation of shamanistic ritual and musical practices and their socio-cultural characteristics at Chosen-dera (lit. ‘Korean temples’), a temple complex located at the foot of Mt. Ikoma between Osaka and Nara Prefecture, where shamanistic as well as Buddhist rites of Korean tradition are performed. 2. Outline of Chosen-dera (1) The dense complex of temples called Chosen-dera at Ikoma is closely related to the Korean ethnic community at Ikaino, in the eastern part of Osaka City. This community resulted from a rush of immigration from Cheju Island during the 1920's and 1930's. (2) Priests and shamans in Chosen-dera are generally called sunim (‘Buddhist priest’) or posal (‘Bodhisattva’), terms which apply to both males and females. However, they are divided into three types according to the nature of their religious practices: shamans of traditional mudang style; Buddhist priests of Korean orthodox style; and those who practice a syncretic style of Buddhism and shamanism, this last being the most numerous. (3) There are two major types of rites in Chosen-dera: regular observances called matsuri (‘festival’) and irregular shamanistic rites called ogami (‘worship’). In the former, worshippers assemble at the temple and worship Buddha and the gods, while in the latter, shamans invite and worship the gods and ancestors' spirits in order to solve various individual problems which worshippers face. The term ogami corresponds to the Korean term kut, but use of the word kut in Chosen-dera is strictly avoided. (4) The temples are mainly supported by first-generation immigrants. Before the 1980's, their activities included not only religious ones, but also entertainment activities such as singing Korean folk songs, dancing and playing games, which were very popular after matsuri. All matsuri dates correspond with Korean holidays (myongj'ol), and such entertainment practices are related to the tradition of nori (‘playing’) on the occasions of these holidays. 3. Ritual processes in Chosen-dara (1) All musical instruments used in the rites are of Korean origin and are often called by their Cheju dialect names. (2) The processes of the following three rites are described, with emphasis on their musical aspects. (I) Ch'ilsongjae, one of the syncretic Buddhist-shamanistic matsuri observances of Temple A. (II) The syncretic Buddhist-shamanistic ogami rite of Shrine R. (III) The shamanistic ogami rite at Temple G. 4. Discussion 1: musical and choreological aspects Some aspects of music and dance of the above rites are examined, with the following conclusions: (1) Both myths and sutras in a rite have some common features in function and style; both are forms of communication from men to the gods and spirits, and both have rhythmically stable percussion accompaniment. (2) However, because of the high value attached to the literate and literacy by Koreans, the use of written texts during sutra recitation creates a distinction between syncretic rites and purely shamanistic ones, and gives authority to the former. (3) Dancing by worshippers during a rite is not as popular as in Korea. This is probably due to the fact that participation by the worshipper's family has become rare, and also because rites in Chosen-dera have become more secret than those in Korea. (4) While myths and sutras are always recited in Korean, Japanese is sometimes used to address worshippers. However, the use of Japanese, which is only for the sake of making the rite progress smoothly, has little influence on musical style. 5. Discussion 2: Chosen-dera in the Korean society in Japan In this chapter the culture of shamanism and its current tren
Butsumyo Hossoku. Manuscript in the possession of the Kyoto temple Daitsuji. Box made of kiri (paulownia) wood, with title written directly on surface of wood. 3 volumes in oricho (accordion-fold) format, height 15.5cm, width 13.1cm. Original covers of light blue paper with pressed patterns of interlocking circles and dragonflies. Titles written directly onto covers. Paper of hishi (ganpishi) type; length of each sheet 51.2cm. Vol. 1 23 folds 11 sheets; Vol. 2 13 folds 6 sheets; Vol. 3 13 folds 6 sheets. Text, written on one side of the paper only, includes Chinese characters, kana, shoten (points indicating accent) and hakase (neumatic notation, with some supplementary signs); most of the text is in one same hand. The name Shinku is written in the same hand at the ends of Vols. 2 & 3. The Shingon-sect temple Daitsuji was founded by Shinku (1204-1268) on the petition of the wife of the third Kamakura shogun, Minamoto no Sanetomo (1192-1219), to pray for the repose of his soul. It is thought that this manuscript may be in the hand of Shinku, although there is no conclusive evidence aside from the name given at the ends of Vols. 2 and 3; even if such is not the case, it probably dates from the thirteenth century. It contains the order of service and texts (some with hakase notation) for the Butsumyo-e, a ceremony in which the names of the 3000 Buddhas, those of the past, present and future, are recited during services held traditionally on the 3 evenings beginning with the 19th day of the twelfth lunar month. A list of the contents of each volume (one for each service) can be found in the table on p. 116 of the Japanese text.
The Research Archives for Japanese Music of Ueno Gakuen College (Director Fukushima Kazuo) has for a number of years been engaged in surveys of important collections of shomyo materials. These have included collections of the Kyoto temple Ninnaji, the Nara temple Saidaiji, Kanazawa Bunko (Kanagawa prefecture), Koya-san University Library (Wakayama Prefecture) and Kanchiin of the Kyoto temple Toji. The collection currently being surveyed is that of the Kyoto temple Daigoji. Daigoji is the head temple of the Daigo branch of the Shingon sect, and has a collection of more than seven hundred boxes of old documents and various materials associated with religion. A detailed survey of these materials was begun in 1914 by a group under Kuroita Katsumi (1874-1946), a professor of the then Tokyo Imperial University; this survey still continues today. Its results have been made public in the form of catalogues of the collection, and important materials have been introduced in a research bulletin published by the temple. The section of the catalogue dealing with shomyo has been largely completed, and, on the basis of this, the Research Archives made a preparatory survey for four days from August 19th, 1984. The Daigoji survey has, since its inception, generally been held for one week in August; in addition to the official survey, Daigoji has also facilitated inspection of materials by other scholars at this time. For the three years since 1986, the Research Archives has participated in a joint survey with a group led by Inagaki Eizo of the Department of Architecture, Faculty of Engineering, Tokyo University, which is studying the esoteric and architectural spaces of Daigoji. The core of the group is made up of members of a research group on exoteric and esoteric Buddhism, comprising young scholars from the fields of architectural history, art history, temple history, and history of the performing arts. Those from the last field include Sato Michiko and Hirose Mito of the Department of Performance Arts of the Tokyo National Research Institute of Cultural Properties, who are studying the Ninno-e and Keka-e ceremonies and associated materials, and the present author, who is undertaking a general survey of the shomyo materials of the collection as a member of staff of the Research Archives for Japanese Music. Other members of the Research Archives' staff participating in the survey have included its director, Fukushima Kazuo, and research assistants Steven G. Nelson and Matsumoto Koji. A local scholar with much experience in the survey of temple holdings, Hashimoto Hatsuko, has also contributed immensely to the efforts of the group. Koda Akira has worked as its specialist photographer. The shomyo materials of Daigoji are fortunately grouped together in boxes; in three years, seventeen boxes with approximately 1, 200 items have been examined and photographed. The results of the joint survey are to be made into a database to facilitate reference, and a complete catalogue of examined materials is to be published.