The komai (lit. ‘small dances’) of kyogen are sung and danced in banquet and drinking scenes in kyogen plays, and are also sung and danced by a single performer in a style similar to shimai in no. Many komai incorporate kouta, popular songs of the late Muromachi period (16th century); “Kaido-kudari, ” the piece dealt with here, is an example of this type. At the time, kouta were sometimes accompanied by the hitoyogiri, a small shakuhachi, and this performance style was adopted in kyogen, where the accompaniment was performed on the nokan, the transverse flute used in no. In the Muromachi period (1392-1568), performers of no always carried a hitoyogiri for tuning before singing, and it seems that the hitoyogiri and the nokan shared a partially common repertoire. The source Yano Ichiu Kikigaki, a record of the transmission of the nokan of the Isso school dating from the Tensho year period (1573-91), makes mention of the modes to be used when playing “Kaido-kudari” on the hitoyogiri and the nokan. Kyogen Rikugi, a source in the hand of Yamawaki-Izumi Motonari (1782-1850) which dates from the Bunsei year period (1818-29), tells of the existence of a practice of playing the nokan in accompaniment to kyogen singing. An example of notation discovered by the present author has proven to be notation for “Kaido-kudari” for nokan and kyogen singing, precisely as described by this source. The notation is of the Isso or Hiraiwa school, and appears to be a copy dating from the Kansei year period (1789-1800). In general, kyogen singing is limited to a low vocal register and not accompanied by the nokan. In this example of notation, however, the vocal part is largely in the high register, while notation for the nokan indicates that it should play the same melody as the vocal part, rhythmically coinciding with each syllable of the text. As a result of deciphering the notation, it has been shown that it is different from the present vocal melody, and the same as the piece by the same name in notation for the hitoyogiri in Shichiku Shoshin-shu, (published in Kanbun 4th year, 1664) and Sosa-ryu Shakuhachi Hiden-shu (in the collection of Tokyo Geijutsu Daigaku). Some parts of the melody have been influenced by kyogen melodic patterns, but the basic melody is identical. Until the present it has often been said that pieces common to kouta and kyogen komai while having identical texts were unrelated melodically, but it is clear that the melodies were identical too at the time when kouta were adopted into komai. Annotations given to the notation indicate that the piece was no longer performed as such at the time the notation was copied. The piece itself was rarely performed within kyogen plays in the Edo period (c 1600-1868), but transmitted rather as a piece performed in dokugin style, sung by a single performer, and this may be a result of its transmission as a piece for nokan and kyogen singing. Another example of “Kaido-kudari” with notation in no shoga style exists in the collection of the Yura family of Yamaguchi prefecture (western Honshu), but this may be of a different lineage; further consideration of it will be left to another occasion.
Anthologies of notation of heikyoku (Heike Monogatari, the Tale of the Heike, in accompanied vocal recitation) have, since the end of the Second World War, attracted the attention of researchers as materials for studies on the Heike Monogatari and on accent in the Japanese language. The first collection of notation published in photographic reproduction was the Heikyoku Mabushi held in the collection of the Department of Japanese Literature of Kyoto University (hereunder referred to as the Kyoto University score), which was undertaken by Okumura Mitsuo in 1971. This article examines its compilation and the nature of the source annotations that appear in great number throughout its text. One of the reasons for the Kyoto University score having been the first selected for photographic reproduction from among the many surviving examples of notation seems to lie in the the supposed circumstances of its compilation. Since the research of Atsumi Kaoru, it has been viewed as being a copy of the draft manuscript for Heike Mabushi, edited by Ogino Kengyo (1776). Heike Mabushi is a collection of notations of Maeda school heikyoku that was used throughout the country in the late Edo period (c nineteenth century) because of the clarity of its notational style and a structural composition that facilitated learning. If it is a copy of the draft manuscript for Heike Mabushi, the Kyoto University score is clearly an important reference for understanding the process by which Heike Mabushi was edited. However, close examination of the Kyoto University score and comparison with the score thought to be the parent copy of Heike Mabushi, that of the Ozaki family collection (photographic reproduction, 1974), has led the present author to the conclusion that the Kyoto University score (or, if it existed, an older original) must have been compiled after, not before, the Ozaki family Heike Mabushi. In what way, then, was the Kyoto University score compiled? Its colophon records the name Oka. This refers to the Edo kokugaku scholar Oka Masatake (1773-1854), the author of Heikyoku Mondo-sho (‘Questions and Answers on Heikyoku’). According to the preface of this work, Oka compiled it in 1820 as a record of answers given by Hoshino Kengyo of Kyoto in writing to various queries posed by Oka that emerged during his preceding eight-year comparative collation of heikyoku notations. The fact that more than eighty percent of the questions dealt with in Heikyoku Mondo-sho agree in some way with annotations to be found in the Kyoto University score indicates that the Kyoto University score was compiled by Oka to function as a record of this comparative investigation. Chapter Two of this article examines the sources for the annotations, amounting to 2200 examples of approximately 30 types, attached to variants identified in the text of the Kyoto University score, in an effort to detail the extent of Oka's comparative collation. As a result, it has become clear that this was based on the following sources: 1. a comparative score made in the Genroku year-period (1688-1704); 2. Heikyoku Ginpu, a score used by sighted enthusiasts in eighteenth-century Edo; 3. a score of the Toyokawa-bon lineage used in Edo by musicians of the todo blind musicians' guild, also used as the central source in the compilation of Heike Mabushi; 4. a score in the lineage of Yokoi Yayu's Heigo, a Maeda-school score used in Nagoya and other regions also used as a source in the compilation of Heike Mabushi; 5. Heike Mabushi as disseminated to Kyoto and Edo; and 6. the actual performance of contemporary heikyoku musicians. As well as contributing important reference material on the process by which Heike Mabushi was edited, the Kyoto University Heikyoku Mabushi score is extremely important in
It is the intention of this article to review the ryukyu scale, about which various theories have been proposed to date, and to make some propositions that may serve as the basis for future research on the subject. The first point at issue is the structure of the ryukyu scale. Koizumi Fumio has interpreted the ryukyu scale (do mi fa sol si do) as being formed from two disjunct tetrachords, each of which is, in his terminology, comprised of two nuclear tones at the interval of a fourth with one infixed tone. In this interpretation, the nuclear tones are do, fa, sol and do. On the other hand, Kakinoki Goro has proposed another interpretation, according to which the melodic movement of Okinawan folksong is ruled by a tertial nucleic structure. In his interpretation, the nuclear tones are do, mi, sol, and si. The second point at issue is the question of which of the ryukyu and ritsu scales is the older. Kojima Tomiko has concluded that the ritsu scale (including the ryo scale as a variant of the ritsu) is the older because it is seen in old-fashioned myth songs in certain remote villages in the Ryukyu region. On the other hand, Koizumi insisted that the ryukyu scale was far older than the ritsu. In the present author's view, there seem to be two different kinds of ryukyu scale in Okinawan music: one is a scale based on a tetrachordal nucleic structure (do mi fa sol si do), in which the nuclear notes locate at do, fa, sol and do; and the other is a scale based on a pentachordal nucleic structure (mi fa sol si do mi), in which the nuclear notes locate at mi, sol and si. The present author has undertaken an investigation of the finalis of all pieces in the repertoire of Okinawan classical songs accompanied by the sanshin (long-necked plucked lute), whose melodies are notated in kunkunshii notation in four volumes. Within the 195 pieces investigated, there are 83 pieces (43%) whose finalis is located at the fourth, while there are 42 pieces (22%) whose finalis is located at the third, fifth, or seventh. The former are based on the tetrachordal nucleic ryukyu scale. However, in the latter the fourth is not stable enough to be thought of as a nuclear note. The present author proposes a pentachordal nucleic ryukyu scale which has its tonic at the third, because through investigation it is possible to recognize that the third, fifth, and seventh function as nuclear notes, and among these the third is most frequently the finalis. It is possible to suppose that the ryo scale (do re mi sol la do) and the pentachordal nucleic ryukyu scale (mi fa sol si do mi) are parallel with each other. In both cases the scale consists of the following intervals: narrow, narrow, wide, narrow, wide, in ascending order. The pentachordal nucleic ryukyu scale, however, displays a little more contrast in terms of the width of its intervals. In the case of certain folksongs of Yaeyama, some of which are dealt with in this article, the pitch of notes in the melody as performed is subtly heightened or lowered, so that it is difficult to identify the scale as being ryo or pentachordal nucleic ryukyu. Therefore, the relationship between these two scales, which appear to be opposites, is, in fact, not dualistic but monistic in nature. Such a relationship is analogous to that of slendro and pelog in Javanese music. This is worthy of note for the purposes of future comparative research. The conclusions of the present author are as follows. In Okinawan music there are five scales: min' yo and ritsu, both based on a tetrachordal nucleic structure, are dominant in the Amami and Okinawa Islands; while ryo and pentachordal nucleic ryukyu, both based on a pentachordal nucleic structure, are dominant in the Yaeyama, Miyako and Okinawa Islands. A complex of these scales is
During the somewhat less than one century between the mid 1500's and the early 1600's, Japan was influenced by Western music largely through the missionary efforts of Portuguese Jesuits. Research on this ‘Kirishitan’ (from the Portuguese) music has until now focussed largely on two aspects: 1. clarification of the types of music that were introduced (types of instruments, etc.); and 2. the influence of Western music on Japanese music. However, a range of other possibilities for research should be possible if we view this period in terms of contact with a foreign culture; this report examines the following possibilities: 1. The use of the so-called ‘Nanban-shiryo, ’ letters and the like sent by the missionaries to their homeland describing the situation in Japan, as material for conducting research on Japanese music of the time. 2. The attitude of the Japanese towards the West differed greatly between the Christian period and the Meiji era, and it follows that their approach to Western music differed as well. It should hence be possible to undertake a comparative study of the Japanese reception of Western music during the two periods. 3. Music in the various Christian mission fields throughout the world can be researched from the perspective of contact with a foreign culture, and the results of such individual studies can be brought together in comparative studies. 4. Study can be made of the process of change to be seen in the uta-orasho, sung orations, of the Hidden Christians of Ikitsuki, a small island near Hirado, off the northwest coast of Kyushu. An examination of the reasons for such change may prove valuable in providing an understanding of the problems faced by performing arts transmitted in localities throughout the country. The Christian period itself was not particularly long, but it was a time when Japan came into contact with a completely different culture. It is hoped that discussion of the four possibilities for research outlined above may lead to more extensive research on the distinctive and specific characteristics of this period.
This is a volume dealing with the sound and music of Cheju Island, South Korea, with an ethnological or ethnographical approach. It centres on the Korean concept of sori, which, while meaning sound or voice, is also of a larger significance, including in its range of meaning musical and sound phenomena in general. The book is divided into four sections: 1. the sounds of daily life; 2. ceremony and music; 3. song; and 4. issues associated with sound. These can be grouped into two parts: sections 1 to 3 are an ethnography of Cheju Island, while section 4 deals with sound as a universal phenomenon. The ethnography of Cheju island is based on the author's detailed fieldwork, undertaken on five occasions, at a village on the east coast of the island. The first two sections are an exhaustive study of the sounds of daily life. Section 1 makes no use of musical transcriptions, but relies solely on the power of words, a feature which will broaden its appeal to scholars in the fields of anthropology, geography, and the like. Section 2 makes use of some transcription, but not to a great extent. Its study of Confucian and shamanistic rites is of such detail as to make it of primary significance in this field. Section 3, dealing with song, is divided into three chapters: song in daily life; ceremony and play songs; and children's games and song. Each is based on detailed ethnographical data. The third of these chapters points out the influence of Japanese children's games on those of Korean children, which perhaps derives from the period of Japanese rule (1910-1945) when games were introduced by Japanese teachers. The author's hypothesis may have been more persuasive if the argument had been developed further with a few more concrete examples. Section 4 deals with what appears to be the central theme of the volume. In its first chapter, the concept of ‘sori’ is explained, and linguistic comparison is made with the range of its synonyms, in an attempt to illustrate that the complete sound world of South Korea can be referred to by this concept. Chapter 2 deals with rhythm and melody in a concise manner; one may have wished for more detail. Chapter 3 deals with the social phases of ‘aural culture, ’ a term the author uses to refer to a concept embracing all expressions of sound. He identifies and defines five functions of music in the case of Cheju Island. A final chapter deals with changes in the music and its social context. Although the issues dealt with in section 4 are extremely important and wide-ranging, the way in which the author has dealt with them seems almost too concise; again, it may have been more persuasive if the account had been expanded with reference to examples given in the earlier sections of the book. Be that as it may, this is a volume that will be of great benefit not only to ethnomusicologists, but also to scholars in the fields of anthropology and sociology. It is certain to become essential reading for those wishing to study Cheju Island.
This publication is a one-volume version of the complete annotated version of Bunki-dan in typographical reprint published by the author in serial form in Tsurumi Daigaku Kiyo 20-25. It is based on two versions of the text: the facsimile reproduction (Kicho Tosho Eihon Kankokai, 1935) of the copy in the Kikutei Collection of Kyoto University Library; and the facsimile reproduction (Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1971) of the copy in the Fushiminomiya Collection of the Archives and Mausolea Department of the Imperial Household Agency (Kunaicho Shoryobu). It includes a bibliographical description of the source, a bibliography, explanatory notes, genealogical charts, and supplementary notes, all of which were in the original version, to which an index of names has been added. Bunki-dan has been mentioned twice in this section of Toyo Ongaku Kenkyu to date (see Issues 48 and 54). It is a collection of historical tales dealing with music, centring on the transmission of the biwa, thought to have been completed in c 1272 by the priest Bunkibo Ryuen. Its purpose seems to have been to identify the position of the Nishi school of biwa within the history of the music tradition, and to argue for the preeminence of Fujiwara no Takatoki (also Hosshinbo, eldest son of Fujiwara no Takamichi [1166-1237], earlier head of the Nishi school). It is the first work of its kind dealing with music. Other collections of historical tales with sections dealing with music, such as Kojidan and Kokon Chomon-ju, include episodes in historical order, but they do not form a complete tale as a whole. It seems that Ryuen modeled his work on the historical tale Okagami; by narrating history within the context of traditions (not only that of the biwa, but also of other instruments and vocal genres), it brings together into a single strand the episodes to be found in fragmentary form in other sources. The 253 sections (in the Kikutei version) overlap with accounts in earlier sources dealing with music and other collections of tales, thus bringing new credibility to them. They are not inconsistent with accounts in later music compendia, such as Kyokunsho, nor with the genealogies of transmission of the biwa and so. It can be said that research on Bunki-dan has been facilitated with the publication of the Fushiminomiya facsimile version with commentary in 1971, and of a typographical reprint of the Kikutei and Fushiminomiya versions with commentary by Hirabayashi Moritoku and Soma Mariko in 1988. Iwasa's annotated version is thus the first of what should be a number of works on Bunki-dan. Her annotations are clear and concise, and demonstrate a wide reading of other music source materials. As the first annotated version, it is worthy of high praise. What we should hope for now is a complete annotation, one that undertakes a thorough comparative survey of contents of the musical compendia. With this we should be able to anticipate the completion of a reference source that lists all appearances of related episodes in all extant written sources.
The second collection of articles by Takeuchi Michitaka has been published, following his Kinsei Geino-shi no Kenkyu (‘Research on the History of the Edoperiod Performing Arts ’) of eight years ago (see review in issue 48 of this journal). In both publications he has contributed much to research on the history of the performing arts of the Edo period. The volume is divided into three sections, namely: 1. research notes (10 articles); 2. research on shohon (play texts); and 3. introduction to source materials. Research notes: 1. “Performance practices in Japanese music” compares the practices characteristic of performance in Japanese music with those of foreign practices, such as Western orchestral practices. 2. “About kakeai pieces” undertakes a historical study using written materials of the changes in kakeai, a type of performance practice in which musics of different genres are played alternately or simultaneously to produce an effect not available when the genres are performed alone. 3. “The origin of uwajoshi” provides a new theory to explain the appearance of uwajoshi, higher tunings used on the shamisen. 4. “Concerning children's songs: their appearance in the traditional repertoire today” deals with four children's songs, examining their dates of origin, their adoption into theatrical music genres such as tokiwazu and kiyomoto, and their relationship to modem children's songs using the same texts. These first four articles all deal in some way with the contents and/or contemporary performance practice of pieces in the traditional repertoire. Although employing source material to advantage, they are all about topics on which it is difficult to draw conclusions, so one is left feeling slightly dissatisfied. The following three articles have all grown out of the author's research on miyakoji-bushi. This was the origin of the bungo-type joruri genres (tokiwazu, tomimoto, and kiyomoto) that went on to have the greatest connection with kabuki, but little research has been done on it to date. These articles should prove to be very valuable for future research on the bungo-type joruri genres. 5. “Notes on Miyakoji Bungo-no-jo” seeks to fill in the gaps in our knowledge of the life of Miyakoji Bungo-no-jo. 6. “Miyakoji Bungo's ‘Nise no Kumiobi” ’ compares a previously unknown piece with a piece in the repertoire of gidayu-bushi. 7. “Concerning Miyakoji Toshidayu” examines this figure and a collection of notation that was in his possession in an attempt to trace the path of miyakojibushi after Bungo-no-jo. The first section ends with three articles that deal with ogie-bushi and related matters. This is also a field that has yet to be researched thoroughly; Takeuchi's work is very valuable. 8. “A study of ‘Suisen Tanzen’ employing nagautashohon” examines the piece “Suisen Tanzen” in the present ogie-bushi repertoire through a study of nagauta texts for the same piece, which is also still performed today. 9. “Kyoden and ogie: from meriyasu to ogie” demonstrates with reference to works by Santo Kyoden that the meriyasu pieces that gave birth to ogie-bushi were not those of the theatre, but rather those sung by male and female geisha at Edo's licensed quarters in Yoshiwara. 10. “Performing arts of the licensed quarters: about “Yoshiwara Niwaka” deals with “Yoshiwara Niwaka” as a representative of the performing arts of Yoshiwara and the licensed quarters. These ten articles make up the first section of the volume. All are valuable, yet deal with fields in which researc