The aim of this paper is to clarify the concept of “gaku” in nagauta. Some nagauta pieces include a section labeled as “gaku”. The “gaku” sections are usually interpreted as representing or musically describing gagaku, court music, though it has been pointed out that the “gaku” sections do not imitate the musical style of gagaku. This paper considers 1) the types of music represented in the gaku, and 2) musical characteristics which create the gaku-likeness. It is not only nagauta that uses the term “gaku”: other genres such as music in the no theater, offstage music (geza ongaku) in the kabuki theater, and Yamada school koto music also use this term. However, the meaning of the term “gaku” varies in each genre. In the case of music in the no theater, the gaku is a type of dance mostly performed by the main actor (shite) who plays the role of “China man”, and the accompanying hayashi ensemble plays a special rhythmic/melodic pattern which is also called gaku. The gaku section is recognizeable by this pattern and can be considered to be representing Chinese music. In the case of kabuki offstage music, a short shamisen piece named gaku is performed as a kind of background music during the opening scene of a palace or at the entrance of a nobleman on stage. Different from the case of no, the gaku in the kabuki theater has a strong connotation with the aristocracy and does not represent Chinese music. But, when the gaku pieces are played, the hayashi part accompanies the same gaku pattern as no music. Some Yamada school koto music also includes a gaku section, where the gagaku koto technique called shizugaki is often used. The gaku here represents or imitates Japanese court music gagaku. The types of music represented in the gaku sections of nagauta have a wider range since they adopt the concepts of gaku from other genres and add nagauta's original meaning to them. In addition to Chinese music, background music for the opening scene at the palace and Japanese court music, some gaku sections represent exquisite music heard in “Western Paradise”, and some are used as background music for a Buddhist saint's appearance. Then, what kind of musical characteristics make a section sound gaku-like? In order to extract the common musical features of the gaku sections of nagauta, twenty-four nagauta gaku sections and seven gaku pieces of kabuki offstage music, which have a close musical relationship with the gaku section of nagauta, have been analyzed. As a result of the musical analysis, the following eight features have been found: 1) slow tempo; 2) continuous pizzicatos (hajiki); 3) double stop technique; 4) special techniques such as kaeshi bachi, and urahajiki; 5) unnatural melodic movement; 6) coexistence of the plural melodies; 7) regular phrasing of four- or eight-bar; 8) the rhythmic/melodic pattern performed by the hayashi part named gaku. Of these eight points, 2), 3) and 4) create the “elegant” and “solemn” atmosphere by using special tone colors, while 5) and 6) produce the gaku-likeness by using melodic movements different from nagauta's usual melodic movements. Creating gaku-likeness can be related to two ways of giving certain meanings to a melody which are widely employed in nagauta pieces: one is to quote a phrase from or to imitate the style of other musical genres, and this is considered to bring the musical atmosphere of the original genre into a nagauta piece; the
Gender Wayang is one of the oldest musical ensembles in Bali. It is played at the several kinds of ceremonies and accompanies the wayang kulit, a traditional Balinese shadow puppet theater. It can be heard throughout Bali, and each village and each group has its own style. Sukawati is very famous as a village of wayang kulit, having many dalangs, puppeteers of wayang kulit, and having a brilliant and distinguished style of gender wayang. This study intends to find out what motivates the musical changes in style of Sukawati village, and is based .mainly upon information from my interviews of musicians during my fieldwork in 1996 and 1997. It seems that gender wayang style in Sukawati before the 1950s was not so different from that in neighboring villages. During 1950s and 1960s, some Sukawati gender musicians and dalang transformed and recreated old pieces of gender wayang to be more modern, more complicated in style, and these changes are the basis of their present. That transformation aimed to create a style distinct from all other villages. Gamelan gong kebyar was a modern musical form developed in north Bali which spread throughout Bali in the 1920s. Sukawati's new style has reflected its influence in these ways: (1) sharpness of sound, (2) sense of running speed, fast in tempo, (3) dramatical expression, (4) virtuoso techniques. It is remarkable that Sukawati musicians regard the fast tempo as modern expression. The new style of music combined with the new style of wayang performance and made wayang Sukawati very popular. Many other musicians had tried to follow, learn and imitate the new style directly or indirectly. Sukawati has become a center for gender wayang from which new ideas and techniques spread. But Sukawati musicians have not been satisfied with it. They continue to try to reform their style so as to be more complicated and too difficult to imitate or play for other musicians so as to keep their difference and superiority in musical style. Sukawati musicians always have made efforts to find new ideas and devices and to push the technical limits of their skills. Sukawati style has changed and also is still changing. It changes not only through the motivation to create better, more modern musical expression, but also through their strategies with which they maintain their highposition as the top performers of gender wayang. These two purposes are fuse into one in the Sukawati musicians. It is their pride in their own music and techniques and their competitive spirit that grow and lead the fertility and prominence of their gender wayang style.
The nagauta “Tuna-Yakata” is highly rated as an excellent achievement among the modem Japanese musical works. It has been transmitted to today since it was composed in 1869 and is still one of the most popular nagauta. The composer of this piece is KINEYA Kangoro III (KINEYA Rokuzaemon XI). It was reported that he was satisfied with its result as the best one among his many original works. He was ambitious to rivive old musics. “Tuna-Yakata” was produced when he found out an old music “Tuwamono-Azumayazukuri” performed in 1741 but remaind only worded. Added “Kusemai” part several years after the first performance, this music became more popularly played. However, there has not been yet an established theory on who originally composed it, when it was composed, or whether Kangoro himself composed it additionally or not, leaving many different opinions. Generally the accepted theory is that “Kusemai” is a diversion from the words of “Kumoi-no-Satokotoba” which was performed by ICHIKAWA Yaozo II in February 1772. However there were many who had doubts about it as the diverted part was very little. Recently there was discovered a song book “Kyoran-Ura-Yamabuki” which was performed in November 1833. This was composed by KINEYA Rokuzaemon X and presented for madman dance played by ICHIKAWA Yaozo IV. The words are fully same as “Kusemai” which we play now, being different in tuning; “Kusemai” is Ni-agari (2nd string major) and “Ura-Yamabuki” is San-sagari (3rd string minor). Kangoro, composer of “Tuna-Yakata” was attended as one of the players for “Ura-Yamabuki” when it was first performed. Furthermore, in 1857 Rokuzaemon composed “Irodorimoyoshi-Sumiregusa”, in which the Aikata (intermezzo) was almost same as that of “Kusemai”. Kangoro was also a member of the first place of performance of this play. Rokuzaemon X was father of Kangoro. It might be possible that Kangoro got some hints from the above-mentioned two works to arrange melody and melodic motif into his composition of “Kusemai”. YOSHIZUMI Jikyo talked that the addition of “Kusemai” resulted from the fact that, after “Tuna-Yakata” was published in 1874, some dancer desired to produce a dance of “Tuna-Yakata” and requested to make this piece a little longer for his dancing, then the Kusemai part was added on. Therefore, I hold the following views to reach a conclusion on composer of “Kusemai”: 1) Kangoro, a composer of “Tuna-yakata”, created “Kusemai” getting hints from his father's two works. It was added after 1874 since this part was not included in the original text published in 1874. 2) The words are diverted from “Kyoran-Ura-Yamabuki”, not from “Kumoino-satokotoba” that has been accepted so far. 3) There might be some confusion due to the facts that name of dancer for respective piece was ICHIKAWA Yaozo only with difference of age (the second or the fourth), there were the same words used in both plays, and further, a madman was mainly described in either play.
This research is to state my hypothesis about Tsukushi-Mai. Presently living in Fukuoka city. NISHIYAMAMURA Koujusai who is the head of the Tsukushi-Mai school has orally transmitted the traditions. And I have written them down. There are six locations in which the traditions of Tsukushi-Mai is presently being taught. Around students are working the art of Tsukushi-Mai in the following areas, Fukuoka city Sawaraku, Fukuokaken Asakura-gun, Fukuoka-ken Dazaifu city, Kanagawa-ken Kawasaki city, Tochigi-ken Tochigi city and Hyogo-ken Himeji city. This research took place from November 1995 through February 1997. There were 13 orally transmitted sessions. What is now known as Tsukushi-Mai was handed down to Koujusai from KIKUMURA kengyou in the early years of the Shouwa era. Up until that time it was known as the art of Kugutsu. Currently there are close to three hundred recordings of this unique art form. It is of great interest that Koujusai's recollection of the time and her detailed memories. ·Tsukusi-Mai has some important characteristics in its performance, for example, : Tsukushi-Mai is the Japanese traditional performing art to employ various pieces of music, which are rarely used for other Japanese dancing, such as Samisen-Kumiuta and Koto-Kumiuta. ·The lyrics and composition of Tsukushi-Mai music is different to conventional music in parts. To write the whole text of the interviews with Koujusai on Tsukushi-Mai is not possible due to space constraints, so in this paper I would like to concentrate on three major characteristics: (1) the classification, (2) the unique composition and lyrics, (3) the principal performance type. Research of (2) and (3) provides the base for section (1). However, it is not possible to look into all facets, because the research was conducted by putting together the contents of talks given by Koujusai. In (2) examples given include “Tobi”, “Etton”, “Ruson-ashi” and “Hashiratsuki”. In (3) examples “Hayafune” and “Shikinokyoku”. There are 4 themes for the future. 1. To find historical material that would prove the existence of KIKUMURA kengyou and Kugutsu who were involved with Tsukushi-Mai. 2. To find historical material that describes the showings of Tsukushi-Mai from the present to the past. 3. To analyze and characterize the relationships between the different types and forms of Tsukushi-Mai. 4. To reintroduce Sasara, a musicial instrument which was said to have been used in the past. There are still many unknown and unclear points in the study of the art of Tsukushi-Mai, and in the future I wish to continue this research from many different angles. After this presentation I would greatly appreciate any information or thoughts you may have about my research.
This research attempts to explain Edo musical instrument makers and their business from the Jokyo to the Genroku periods from topographical resources. At present, there is no research on the genealogy of musicalinstrument makers and the musical instrument business in the Edo period, with the exception of the shamisen maker Oumi, and there is almost no general study of the various master craftsmen concerning musical instruments. I wrote “A genealogy of musical instrument makers and the musical instrument business in early modern Kyoto” first, but I believe that topographical resources like “Edo Kanoko” are extremely important in explaning musical instrument makers and the musical instrument business even Edo and thus I have completed the present work.