Itchu-bushi, a genre of joruri narrative, was originated by Miyako Itchu I in Kyoto in the Genroku era (1688-1703). There is debate as to whether pieces in the contemporary repertoire were composed by Itchu: some scholars feel that some of them may have been composed or revised by Miyako Kunitayu Hanchu (a student of Itchu I who later became independent and started bungo-bushi, another school of joruri narrative). Other pieces are thought to be compositions or revisions by Itchu V who revived itchu-bushi with the help of a kato-bushi shamisen player, Sugano Joyu I. Kato-bushi is also another school of joruri. Two factors make it difficult to identify the composers of joruri. Firstly, published texts are limited in number. Secondly, few records of performances exist due to the fact that compositions were not performed in the theater but in the salon. Nonetheless, there exist a core of pieces which are generally identified as Itchu's compositions. For this purpose of this paper, I selected twelve pieces, the names of melody types of which are identified in published texts. Ten pieces included in the staff notation form, compiled by the Hogaku Chosa-gakari (Department of Research in Japanese Traditional Music) which was attached to the Tokyo Ongaku Gakko (Tokyo Academy of Music) in the first half of 20th century; or in numeral notation form transcribed by Asada Shotetsu. I transcribed the remaining two pieces from sound recordings. Analysis of these twelve pieces in those contemporary notation has enabled me to classify melody types used by Itchu I in terms of their musical functions, identify the basic melodies (kihon-ji) which are used frequently in itchu-bushi narrative style, and observe the frequency of borrowings from other schools and arrangements of melody types used in each piece. The results of the analysis are as follows. (1) An itchu-bushi piece centers on the basic units (jishitsu tangen), is divided into sections by its connecting units (kessetsu tangen), and is varied musically by inserting figurative units (moyo tangen). Lots of melody types are related to other schools of joruri. (2) The basic units are classified into basic and borrowed motives. The former corresponds to the basic melodies (kihon-ji), and the latter comes from the other schools of joruri such as bungo-bushi, gidayu-bushi. Representative patterns of kihon-ji which listeners may perceive as typical itchu-bushi style are the patterns E, I and J of ‘futsu-ji’ in Score 2. The patterns named ‘haya-ji’ (hE, hI, hJ hK, hM, ) in Score 2 are also typical, and they are often quoted in the other shamisen music as typical itchu-bushi melody. (3) After studying the arrangements of melody types used in each piece, I can conclude that all twelve pieces analyzed contain melodies borrowed from other narrative genres. It is safe to say that the descendants of Itchu I (Hanchu, Itchu V and Joyu I) have added some revisions to the original pieces.
In Indonesia there are several regional styles of gamelan such as Javanese, Sundanese, and Balinese. These differ not only in terms of instruments and musical styles but also in terms of the socio-cultural context. After Indonesia became independent, formal institutes (conservatories) were built to preserve, promote, and develop the traditional performing arts in each region. Following independence, traditional musicians have been called seniman alam (artists of nature, or natural artists) and have been distinguished from the So-called intellectual musicians who received their formal musical education in the institutes. While the former focuses on oral transmission, the latter is conspicuous for its orientation towards musical literacy, especially the use of notation in musical education and research. The purpose of this paper is to examine the meaning of the transformation of orality by analyzing the learning processes of Sundanese gamelan in West Java. In West Java the theory of musical notation (number notation) originated in work authored by Raden Machjar Angga Koesoemadinata (1902-79), in collaboration with Yaap Kunst (1891-1960), written during the 1920s and 1930s. His theoretical model has been by performing arts institutes: SMK N. 10 Bandung, former SMKI Bandung (1958-) and STSI Bandung (1970-). The introduction and strengthening of literacy in music through systems such as Sundanese notation and solmization has made it possible to systematize traditional music education, including the gamelan genres pelog/salendro and gamelan degung. The amount of notation used in learning gamelan pelog/salendro in the institutes changes as the learning stage proceeds. At the rudimentary stage students begin to learn an ensemble of gamelan with a score which contains the basic patterns of the main instruments, such as goong & kempul, kenong, saron and bonang. Teachers say that using the score is useful for the students to understand the musical structure visually, helping them to learn the basic ways of playing every instrument. Teachers also use some kinds of etude in teaching such instruments as kendang and gambang that need improvisation and variation. The etudes can help students gain basic knowledge of those instruments. However, they are not used in ensemble lessons. The score is not used at the advanced. Only a notation of nuclear tones like posisi kenongan (‘position of kenong tones’) or patokan is employed. It is possible to draw out various versions of performance from this notation despite its prescriptive function. However, some students learn how to play orally even when they play depending on the notation. Students in the final stages have to be able to play without notation, as it is still common in contemporary Sundanese music culture for gamelan to perform without notation. Use of notation in gamelan class in the institutes enables teachers to teach many students of different levels together. In addition to this, students can learn by themselves to an extent, going over the lessons by the notation. However, notation has also led to a decrease in the ability for musical interaction and application (e. g., improvisation, memorization, both characteristics of oral transmission), and, as a result, conflict is emerging between the transmission of seniman alam and the institutional education of traditional music. The institutes of performing arts that introduced musical literary have been developing it for about 40 years. In the early period some teachers who had come from seniman alam, who were trained in the oral system, subsequently acquired the ability to reading and write notation. It is said that the traditional way of learning with orality and the modern way with literacy coexisted at that time. Teachers have developed etude
In Turkey, there are “minstrels” called âsik, who sing poetry to the accompaniment of the instrument called the baglama. Like the majority of people in Turkey, their origin is Central Asia. They started to migrate to Anatolia, part of the present-day Republic of Turkey, in the eleventh century. In pre-modern Turkey âsik played a central role in the dissemination and creation of Turkish folk songs as well as traditionally serving the role of news-teller. However, in Turkish contemporary society, mass media has assumed the role of news-teller and professional folk-singers and other musicians have taken over the role of the creation of folk songs. As a result, âsik have lost their traditional role. Yet the âsik are still present and recognized as valuable by the people in the Republic. This is partly due to the nature of âsik poems, which express popular themes of mass sentiment. However, while âsik poems are frequently mentioned in the literature, little is said about the music itself. This research explored the music of the âsik and its significance in contemporary Turkish society, taking as its focus the repertory of Âsik Veysel Satirogul, regarded as the greatest âsik in the Republic. By contrasting his performance with that of other âsik from his region (Central Anatolia), the characteristics of his style were isolated and identified. Reinhard (1977) identifies the following as hallmarks of âsik style of Central Anatolia: the rhythmic texture is syllabic; their melodic lines descend; their melodic contours fall within the interval of a fourth; their music ends on an ‘A’ or ‘D’. Analysis of Veysel's repertory demonstrated that his music is stylistically indistinguishable from the music of other âsik in Central Anatolia. It can be said that the fact that even the greatest âsik follows local tradition underlines that invariability, the continuity of a tradition from Central Asia, is central to the music of the âsik.
The contact that immigrants maintained with their homeland is one of the important determinants of the immigrant culture. However, this factor has been rarely emphasized in the studies on immigrant cultures as well as on Japanese Americans. The studies on immigrant cultures tended to focus on the interplay of cultural elements originating from the host society and those the immigrants bring from their home, while the studies on Japanese Americans tended to emphasize a process of Japanese American's Americanization, acculturation, and their upward movement toward the America's middle class through the successive generations. This study attempts to focus on the element undervalued in these past studies —a tie between immigrants and their home culture —to gain new insights into the Japanese American musical culture in pre-World War II southern California. The Japanese immigrants in pre-World War II southern California maintained close contact with their home culture through the successive waves of touring Japanese artists from Japan who performed and/or taught their musical arts in the United States. This study views these Japanese performance artists as “cultural ambassadors, ” and examines their roles and influences in the immigrant community. There were two major forces that attracted a large number of touring Japanese artists to the United States. One was the Japanese artists' own ambitions to achieve some success outside Japan. The other was the Japanese immigrants' strong attachment and longing for their home country. Coming from nationalist Japan of the Meiji period (1868-1912) and encountering racism and cultural conflict in the foreign country, the Japanese immigrants reinforced their Japanese identity and looked toward Japan as their authentic cultural model. In this pro-Japan immigrant community, the touring Japanese artists played the following three major roles to affect the immigrant musical culture: 1) The role as a provider of contemporary Japanese musical arts and entertainment. Through the overseas performances by the Japanese artists, Japanese immigrants were able to enjoy the musical arts and entertainment that were popular in Japan at that time, and thus, they could maintain an intimate cultural tie with “contemporary” Japan. 2) The role as a teacher and promoter of Japanese performance arts. Some of the Japanese artists not only performed, but also taught their arts to the Japanese immigrants, and sometimes even organized the local performance groups within the immigrant community. There were artists who were invited from Japan as instructors for the immigrant-based performance groups. The Japanese artists, thus, greatly contributed to the development of Japanese performance arts among the immigrants, and enhanced Japanese culture within the immigrant community. 3) The role as a catalyst for the immigrants' acceptance of western musical culture. Although the majority of the Japanese immigrants were yet unfamiliar with western art music, they paid a great deal of attention to the Japanese professionals of western art music who performed in the United States, because the immigrants highly regarded those artists as the Japanese elites successfully assimilated into western culture. Through these Japanese professionals, the immigrants gained access to western musical culture in the United States, and also raised their self-confidence and pride as Japanese.
This report attempts to clarify the origin of the shoko, and also to consider the changing process of the gong frame-stand in terms of form/shape and motivic design. The shoko is presently used as part of the gagaku orchestra and also as one of the sound-producing tools in the Buddhist temple. Its origin and history are rather vague. However, its existence was known of in the Heian period (9-11 centuries). My investigation is based on the following three areas. Firstly, written documents relating to the shoko. Second, iconographic data and thirdly existing instruments. The first half of this report will examine surviving examples of shoko in Japan and offer a summary of literature relating to the shoko (in particular archival sources from ancient times through the middle ages). The second half will examine change in frame-stand design and the implication of its motivic decoration. I will then refer to archaeological and Buddhist art source materials to trace the palmetto design on the frame-stand from the Korean peninsula through China and the Silk Road to Central Asia, India and Persia to Greece and Rome. Owing to the word limit, I will only be able to offer partial coverage of the issues in the second half.