Landside gate congestion at container terminals has become a critical issue throughout the world. Many ports attempt to ease the congestion by controlling the peak-hour traffic. However, an effective operational framework to ease congestion has not yet been formulated. In this study, the authors hypothesize that the congestion measures taken at container terminals can be explained by the social dilemma theory. Through a series of case studies of practical measures taken at ports in Japan, Australia and the United States to alleviate congestion at gates, the study reveals that efforts to change drivers’ behavior are critical for the success of such measures.
As the maritime industry is expected to play a great role to promote China’s One Belt One Road initiative, Chinese government has launched various policies to promote international competitiveness of its maritime industry. This paper reviews current Chinese maritime policies and business activities. It was found that while policies have not bring positive results yet, the cargo increase was remarkable in the specific ports which Chinese companies have get involved deeply.