Ergonomics is defined as “the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of
interactions among human and other element of a system.” The principle of ergonomics is to design a
system as human-centered manner, and the most important concepts of ergonomics are; 1) the system
concept, 2) load-effect concept, 3) usability and 4) accessibility. These concepts are applied to almost
all field of system design which involves one or more human beings. In this paper, some case studies
are shown to which the concepts of ergonomics are applied in various field and ergonomics has almost
similar goal and discipline with Transdisciplinary Science and Technology.
Railways are a major and well-used transport systems in Japan. Ergonomic studies have
been conducted since the establishment of the Railway Labor Science Institute in 1963. The main
purpose of applying the ergonomic approach to railway transport is for improvements in passenger/
employee safety and comfort. This paper outlines a brief history and recent topics to this methodology.
In particular, we focus on a transdisciplinary approach in cooperation with other appropriate
research fields, such as safety equipment, vehicle dynamics, architecture and information technology.
Major topics discussed will include: joint studies with train protection systems on human error
prevention, with vehicle dynamics on passengers’ motion and injuries caused by train collisions and
riding comfort evaluations.
In this document, interfaces between pilots in a cockpit and Air Traffic Controllers (ATC)
are discussed using the aircraft accident investigation reports by Japan Transport Safety Board. Specially
in the case of near midair collision, TCAS (Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System) RA
(Resolution Advisory) issued both in aircraft A and aircraft B, but ATC could not get TCAS information
through their radar system. So possibility of TCAS data downlink from aircraft to radar display
in ATC was discussed. Simultaneously usability of reminders in ATC system was discussed. There
existed some gaps between controllers working position and the displays of reminders.
This paper introduces some examples of application of human centered design (HCD)
process to software products, especially human interface. We applied HCD to three types of products,
which user characteristics are different. And to apply HCD to software development project easily,
we added HCD process concept and UI guideline to a development standard for System Integration
“Accessible design” is an emerging design method of products, services and environments.
It takes into account special requirements of older persons and persons with disabilities in
the design process and, thereby, maximizes the number of their potential users. In the design process,
ergonomic knowledge and human-ability/characteristic data of those target users play a crucial
role. This paper reviews the development of accessible-design methods in a variety of fields such as
user-interface design of consumer products and shows how ergonomic knowledge and data can be
used effectively. It also focuses on relevant activities of international standardization in Technical
Committee 159 “Ergonomics” of International Organization for Standardization.
System plays a key role in contemporary world. The world is now at the age of systems
in which systems in various kinds play crucial roles in every aspect of human life. If we think that the
innovation is an advent of a new life style due to the advance of sciences and technology, the system
building must be a key factor of innovation. Therefore, systems science and technology must lead
the innovation. In this article, we advocate the importance and implication of systems sciences and
technology in the process of realizing innovation. The notion of systems buliding strategic research
(SBSR) which was proposed by JST as a powerful device to promote systems science and technology
is fully discussed. It is emphasized that SBSR can provide a good platform for the collaboration of
various disciplines and rational decision making in the planning stage of systems building projects.
Systems science and technology has many distinguishable characteristics which the other traditional
sciences and technology do not share. Its real achievements cannot be presented in a concrete form.
Its message is always represented as an abstract and invisible theory. So, it needs some special consideration
to appreciate the importance of its result. The relevance of systems science and technology
to a new growth strategy is discussed extensively.
Post-Normal Science is a total management conception of the complex science-related
issues. By an inclusion of large-scale complex systems as models of our modern society, it is able
to provide a coherent framework for an extended participation in decision-making and/or assessing
possible solutions and alternatives for complex public issues, based on the new technology of global
sensitivity analysis. Global sensitivity analysis is a means of quality control of generic models and is
useful in the assessment of public policies. Global sensitivity analysis provides a new technical tool
for Post-Normal Science.
Several academic associations support the human interface research activities from various
aspects (e.g., information processing, virtual realities, mechatronics, cognitive science, human
factors, etc.) as special interest groups. Among them, the Human Interface Society is an independent
society and the variety of the activities. The number of memberships is 1445.