IEICE Transactions on Communications
Online ISSN : 1745-1345
Print ISSN : 0916-8516
Advance online publication
Displaying 1-50 of 77 articles from this issue
  • Naotake YAMAMOTO, Taichi SASAKI, Atsushi YAMAMOTO, Tetsuya HISHIKAWA, ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2022EBP3010
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 22, 2022
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    A path loss prediction formula for IoT (Internet of Things) wireless communication close to ceiling beams in the 920 MHz band is presented. In first step of our investigation, we conduct simulations using the FDTD (Finite Difference Time Domain) method and propagation tests close to a beam on the ceiling of a concrete building. In the second step, we derive a path loss prediction formula from the simulation results by using the FDTD method, by dividing into three regions of LoS (line-of-sight) situation, situation in the vicinity of the beam, and NLoS (non-line-of-sight) situation, depending on the positional relationship between the beam and transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) antennas. For each condition, the prediction formula is expressed by a relatively simple form as a function of height of the antennas with respect to the beam bottom. Thus, the prediction formula is very useful for the wireless site planning for the IoT wireless devices set close to concrete beam ceiling.

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  • Shuya ABE, Go HASEGAWA, Masayuki MURATA
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2022EBP3052
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 20, 2022
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    It is now becoming important for mobile cellular networks to accommodate all kinds of Internet of Things (IoT) communications. However, the contention-based random access and radio resource allocation used in traditional cellular networks, which are optimized mainly for human communications, cannot efficiently handle large-scale IoT communications. For this reason, standardization activities have emerged to serve IoT devices such as Cellular-IoT (C-IoT). However, few studies have been directed at evaluating the performance of C-IoT communications with periodic data transmissions, despite this being a common characteristic of many IoT communications.

    In this paper, we give the performance analysis results of mobile cellular networks supporting periodic C-IoT communications, focusing on the performance differences between LTE and Narrow band-IoT (NB-IoT) networks. To achieve this, we first construct an analysis model for end-to-end performance of both the control plane and data plane, including random access procedures, radio resource allocation, establishing bearers in the Evolved Packet Core network, and user-data transmissions. In addition, we include the impact of the immediate release of the radio resources proposed in 3GPP. Numerical evaluations show that NB-IoT can support more IoT devices than LTE, up to 8.7 times more, but imposes a significant delay in data transmissions. We also confirm that the immediate release of radio resources increases the network capacity by up to 17.7 times.

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  • Xin WANG, Xiaolin HOU, Lan CHEN, Yoshihisa KISHIYAMA, Takahiro ASAI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2022EBP3009
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 15, 2022
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    Channel state information (CSI) acquisition at the transmitter side is a major challenge in massive MIMO systems for enabling high-efficiency transmissions. To address this issue, various CSI feedback schemes have been proposed, including limited feedback schemes with codebook-based vector quantization and explicit channel matrix feedback. Owing to the limitations of feedback channel capacity, a common issue in these schemes is the efficient representation of the CSI with a limited number of bits at the receiver side, and its accurate reconstruction based on the feedback bits from the receiver at the transmitter side. Recently, inspired by successful applications in many fields, deep learning (DL) technologies for CSI acquisition have received considerable research interest from both academia and industry. Considering the practical feedback mechanism of 5th generation (5G) New radio (NR) networks, we propose two implementation schemes for artificial intelligence for CSI (AI4CSI), the DL-based receiver and end-to-end design, respectively. The proposed AI4CSI schemes were evaluated in 5G NR networks in terms of spectrum efficiency (SE), feedback overhead, and computational complexity, and compared with legacy schemes. To demonstrate whether these schemes can be used in real-life scenarios, both the modeled-based channel data and practically measured channels were used in our investigations. When DL-based CSI acquisition is applied to the receiver only, which has little air interface impact, it provides approximately 25% SE gain at a moderate feedback overhead level. It is feasible to deploy it in current 5G networks during 5G evolutions. For the end-to-end DL-based CSI enhancements, the evaluations also demonstrated their additional performance gain on SE, which is 6%-26% compared with DL-based receivers and 33%-58% compared with legacy CSI schemes. Considering its large impact on air-interface design, it will be a candidate technology for 6th generation (6G) networks, in which an air interface designed by artificial intelligence can be used.

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  • Toshihiro ITO, Shoji Matsuda, Yoshiya KASAHARA
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3211
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 09, 2022
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    Distributed array radars consist of multiple sub-arrays separated by tens to hundreds of wavelengths and can match narrow beamwidths with large-aperture, high-gain antennas. The physical independence of the sub-arrays contributes to significant structure flexibility and is one of the advantages of such radars. However, a typical problem is the grating lobes in the digital beam forming (DBF) beam pattern. Unfortunately, the need to suppress the generation of grating lobes makes the design of acceptable sub-array arrangements very difficult. A sigma-delta beam former direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method is proposed in this study to solve this problem. The proposed method performs DOA estimation by acquiring the difference signals in addition to the sum signals of all sub-arrays. The difference signal is typically used for monopulse DOA estimation in the phased array radar. The sigma-delta beamformer simultaneously has both advantages of DOA estimations using a distributed array with a large aperture length and using a sub-array that is not affected by the grating lobe. The proposed method can improve the DOA estimation accuracy over the conventional method under grating lobe situations and help the distributed array radar achieve flexibility in the sub-array arrangement. Numerical simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed DOA estimation method.

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  • Takahiko KATO, Masaki BANDAI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3217
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 09, 2022
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    In this paper, we propose a new rate-based congestion control method for Named Data Networking (NDN) using additive increase multiplicative decrease (AIMD) and explicit rate notification. In the proposed method, routers notify a corresponding consumer of bottleneck bandwidth by use of Data packets, in a relatively long interval. In addition, routers monitor outgoing faces using the leaky bucket mechanism. When congestion is detected, the routers report this to corresponding consumers using negative-acknowledgment (NACK) packets. A consumer sets its Interest sending rate to the reported rate when a new value is reported. In addition, the consumer adjusts the sending rate to be around the reported rate based on the AIMD mechanism at Data/NACK packet reception. Computer simulations show that the proposed method achieves a high throughput performance and max-min fairness thanks to the effective congestion avoidance.

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  • You-Chiun WANG, Li-En TAI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2022EBP3027
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: June 09, 2022
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    Device-to-device (D2D) relay enhances the capacity of a mobile network. If the channel quality of a user equipment (UE) is bad, the UE asks a neighbor to get its data from the base station and forward the data to it by using D2D communication. Since cellular and D2D communication can share spectrum resources, the spectral efficiency will rise. As UEs are owned by self-interested users, they may not provide relay services gratis. Thus, some incentive methods let UEs exchange tokens to buy and sell relay services. However, they assume that each relay service is worth one token and offers a fixed data rate, which lacks flexibility. Through the law of supply and demand, this paper proposes an economy aware token-based incentive (EAT-BI) strategy. A supplier (i.e., the service provider) charges different prices for its relay service with different rates. A consumer (i.e., the service requestor) takes different policies to choose a supplier based on its tokens and may bargain with suppliers to avoid starvation. Simulation results show that EAT-BI can efficiently promote D2D relay use and increase throughput under different mobility models of UEs.

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  • Xiang BI, Huang HUANG, Benhong ZHANG, Xing WEI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3210
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 31, 2022
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    It is of great significance to design a stable and reliable routing protocol for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks(VANETs) that adopt Vehicle to Vehicle(V2V) communications in the face of frequent network topology changes. In this paper, we propose a hybrid routing algorithm, RCRIQ, based on improved Q-learning. For an established cluster structure, the cluster head is used to select the gateway vehicle according to the gateway utility function to expand the communication range of the cluster further. During the link construction stage, an improved Q-learning algorithm is adopted. The corresponding neighbor vehicle is chosen according to the maximum Q value in the neighbor list. The heuristic algorithm selects the next-hop by the maximum heuristic function value when selecting the next-hop neighbor node. The above two strategies are comprehensively evaluated to determine the next hop. This way ensures the optimal selection of the next hop in terms of reachability and other communication parameters. Simulation experiments show that the algorithm proposed in this article has better performance in terms of routing stability, throughput, and communication delay in the urban traffic scene.

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  • Chien-Chi Kao, Hey-Chyi Young
    Article type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2021TMI0001
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 27, 2022
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    For many countries in the world, 5G is of strategic significance. In the 5G era, telecom operators are expected to enable and provide multiple services with different communication characteristics like enhanced broadband, ultra-reliable and extreme real-time communications at the same time. To meet the requirements, the 5G network essentially will be more complex compared with traditional 3G/4G networks. The unique characteristics of 5G resulted from new technologies bring a lot of opportunities as well as significant challenges. In this paper we first introduce 5G vision and check the global status. And then we illustrate the 5G technical essentials and point out the new opportunities that 5G will bring to us. We also highlight the coming challenges and share our 5G experience and solutions toward 5G vision in many aspects, including network, management and business.

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  • You-Chiun WANG, Yu-Cheng BAI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021TMP0001
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 27, 2022
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    Wireless sensor networks provide long-term monitoring of the environment, but sensors are powered by small batteries. Using a mobile charger (MC) to replenish energy of sensors is one promising solution to prolong their usage time. Many approaches have been developed to find the MC's moving path, and they assume that sensors have a fixed sensing rate (SR) and prefer to fully charge sensors. In practice, sensors can adaptively adjust their SRs to meet application demands or save energy. Besides, due to the fully charging policy, some sensors with low energy may take long to wait for the MC's service. Thus, the paper formulates a path and charge (P&C) problem, which asks how to dispatch the MC to visit sensors with adaptive SRs and decide their charging time, such that both survivability and throughput of sensors can be maximized. Then, we propose an efficient P&C scheduling (EPCS) algorithm, which builds the shortest path to visit each sensor. To make the MC fast move to charge the sensors near death, some sensors with enough energy are excluded from the path. Moreover, EPCS adopts a floating charging mechanism based on the ratio of workable sensors and their energy depletion. Simulation results verify that EPCS can significantly improve the survivability and throughput of sensors.

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  • Yun WU, Yu SHI, Jieming YANG, Lishan BAO, Chunzhe LI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021TMP0002
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 27, 2022
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    In the Artificial Intelligence for IT Operations scenarios, KPI (Key Performance Indicator) is a very important operation and maintenance monitoring indicator, and research on KPI anomaly detection has also become a hot spot in recent years. Aiming at the problems of low detection efficiency and insufficient representation learning of existing methods, this paper proposes a fast clustering-based KPI anomaly detection method HCE-DWL. This paper firstly adopts the combination of hierarchical agglomerative clustering (HAC) and deep assignment based on CNN-Embedding (CE) to perform cluster analysis (that is HCE) on KPI data, so as to improve the clustering efficiency of KPI data, and then separately the centroid of each KPI cluster and its Transformed Outlier Scores (TOS) are given weights, and finally they are put into the LightGBM model for detection (the Double Weight LightGBM model, referred to as DWL). Through comparative experimental analysis, it is proved that the algorithm can effectively improve the efficiency and accuracy of KPI anomaly detection.

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  • Masahiro Yoshida, Koya Mori, Tomohiro Inoue, Hiroyuki Tanaka
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021TMP0003
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 27, 2022
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    Connected cars generate a huge amount of Internet of Things (IoT) sensor information called Controller Area Network (CAN) data. Recently, there is growing interest in collecting CAN data from connected cars in a cloud system to enable life-critical use cases such as safe driving support. Although each CAN data packet is very small, a connected car generates thousands of CAN data packets per second. Therefore, real-time CAN data collection from connected cars in a cloud system is one of the most challenging problems in the current IoT. In this paper, we propose an Edge computing-enhanced network Redundancy Elimination service (EdgeRE) for CAN data collection. In developing EdgeRE, we designed a CAN data compression architecture that combines in-vehicle computers, edge datacenters and a public cloud system. EdgeRE includes the idea of hierarchical data compression and dynamic data buffering at edge datacenters for real-time CAN data collection. Across a wide range of field tests with connected cars and an edge computing testbed, we show that the EdgeRE reduces bandwidth usage by 88% and the number of packets by 99%.

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  • Masaki YOSHII, Ryohei BANNO, Osamu MIZUNO
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021TMP0007
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 27, 2022
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    New services can use fog nodes to distribute Internet of Things (IoT) data. To distribute IoT data, we apply the publish/subscribe messaging model to a fog computing system. A service provider assigns a unique identifier, called a Tag ID, to a player who owes data. A Tag ID matches multiple IDs and resolves the naming rule for data acquisition. However, when users configure their fog node and distribute IoT data to multiple players, the distributed data may contain private information. We propose a table-based access control list (ACL) to manage data transmission permissions to address this issue. It is possible to avoid unnecessary transmission of private data by using a table-based ACL. Furthermore, because there are fewer data transmissions, table-based ACL reduces traffic. Consequently, the overall system's average processing delay time can be reduced. The proposed method's performance was confirmed by simulation results. Table-based ACL, particularly, could reduce processing delay time by approximately 25% under certain conditions. We also concentrated on system security. The proposed method was used, and a qualitative evaluation was performed to demonstrate that security is guaranteed.

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  • Tatsuya SATO, Taku SHIMOSAWA, Yosuke HIMURA
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021TMP0008
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 27, 2022
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    Enterprises have paid attention to consortium blockchains like Hyperledger Fabric, which is one of the most promising platforms, for efficient decentralized transactions without depending on any particular organization. A consortium blockchain-based system will be typically built across multiple organizations. In such blockchain-based systems, system operations across multiple organizations in a decentralized manner are essential to maintain the value of introducing consortium blockchains. Decentralized system operations have recently been becoming realistic with the evolution of consortium blockchains. For instance, the release of Hyperledger Fabric v2.x, in which individual operational tasks for a blockchain network, such as command execution of configuration change of channels (Fabric's sub-networks) and upgrade of chaincodes (Fabric's smart contracts), can be partially executed in a decentralized manner. However, the operations workflows also include the preceding procedure of pre-sharing, coordinating, and pre-agreeing the operational information (e.g., configuration parameters) among organizations, after which operation executions can be conducted, and this preceding procedure relies on costly manual tasks. To realize efficient decentralized operations workflows for consortium blockchain-based systems in general, we propose a decentralized inter-organizational operations method that we call Operations Smart Contract (OpsSC), which defines an operations workflow as a smart contract. Furthermore, we design and implement OpsSC for blockchain network operations with Hyperledger Fabric v2.x. This paper presents OpsSC for operating channels and chaincodes, which are essential for managing the blockchain networks, through clarifying detailed workflows of those operations. A cost evaluation based on an estimation model shows that the total operational cost for executing a typical operational scenario to add an organization to a blockchain network having ten organizations could be reduced by 54 percent compared with a conventional script-based method. The implementation of OpsSC has been open-sourced and registered as one of Hyperledger Labs projects, which hosts experimental projects approved by Hyperledger.

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  • Xing WEI, Xuehua LI, Shuo CHEN, Na LI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021TMP0011
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 27, 2022
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    Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication plays a pivotal role in the evolution of Internet of Things (IoT). Cellular networks are considered to be a key enabler for M2M communications, which are originally designed mainly for Human-to-Human (H2H) communications. The introduction of M2M users will cause a series of problems to traditional H2H users, i.e., interference between various traffic. Resource allocation is an effective solution to these problems. In this paper, we consider a shared resource block (RB) and power allocation in an H2H/M2M coexistence scenario, where M2M users are subdivided into delay-tolerant and delay-sensitive types. We first model the RB-power allocation problem as maximization of capacity under Quality-of-Service (QoS) constraints of different types of traffic. Then, a learning framework is introduced, wherein a complex agent is built from simpler subagents, which provides the basis for distributed deployment scheme. Further, we proposed distributed Q-learning based autonomous RB-power allocation algorithm (DQ-ARPA), which enables the machine type network gateways (MTCG) as agents to learn the wireless environment and choose the RB-power autonomously to maximize M2M pairs' capacity while ensuring the QoS requirements of critical services. Simulation results indicates that with an appropriate reward design, our proposed scheme succeeds in reducing the impact of delay-tolerant machine type users on critical services in terms of SINR thresholds and outage ratios.

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  • Cheng ZHANG, Noriaki KAMIYAMA
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021TMP0014
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 27, 2022
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    With the popularity of smart devices, mobile crowdsensing, in which the crowdsensing platform gathers useful data from users of smart devices, e.g., smartphones, has become a prevalent paradigm. Various incentive mechanisms have been extensively adopted for the crowdsensing platform to incentivize users of smart devices to offer sensing data. Existing works have concentrated on rewarding smart-device users for their short term effort to provide data without considering the long-term factors of smart-device users and the quality of data. Our previous work has considered the quality of data of smart-device users by incorporating the long-term reputation of smart-device users. However, our previous work only considered a quality maximization problem with budget constraints on one location. In this paper, multiple locations are considered. Stackelberg game is utilized to solve a two-stage optimization problem. In the first stage, the crowdsensing platform allocates the budget to different locations and sets price as incentives for users to maximize the total data quality. In the second stage, the users make efforts to provide data to maximize its utility. Extensive numerical simulations are conducted to evaluate proposed algorithm.

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  • Daisuke AMAYA, Takuji TACHIBANA
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021TMP0015
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 27, 2022
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    Service chaining is attracting attention as a promising technology for providing a variety of network services by applying virtual network functions (VNFs) that can be instantiated on commercial off-the-shelf servers. The data transmission for each service chain has to satisfy the quality of service (QoS) requirements in terms of the loss probability and transmission delay, and hence the amount of resources for each VNF is expected to be sufficient for satisfying the QoS. However, the increase in the amount of VNF resources results in a high cost for improving the QoS. To reduce the cost of utilizing a VNF, sharing VNF instances through multiple service chains is an effective approach. However, the number of packets arriving at the VNF instance is increased, resulting in a degradation of the QoS. It is therefore important to select VNF instances shared by multiple service chains and to determine the amount of resources for the selected VNFs. In this paper, we propose a cost-effective service chain construction with a VNF sharing model. In the proposed method, each VNF is modeled as an M/M/1/K queueing model to evaluate the relationship between the amount of resources and the loss probability. The proposed method determines the VNF sharing, the VNF placement, the amount of resources for each VNF, and the transmission route of each service chain. For the optimization problem, these are applied according to our proposed heuristic algorithm. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method through a simulation. From the numerical examples, we show the effectiveness of the proposed method under certain network topologies.

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  • Shoya CHIBA, Luis GUILLEN, Satoru IZUMI, Toru ABE, Takuo SUGANUMA
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021TMP0020
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 27, 2022
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    This paper proposes a Software-Defined Network (SDN)-based Moving Target Defense (MTD) to protect the network from potential scans in a compromised network. As a unique feature, contrary to traditional MTDs, the proposed MTD can work alongside other tools and countermeasures already deployed in the network (e.g., Intrusion Protection and Detection Systems) without affecting its behavior. Through extensive evaluation, we showed the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism compared to existing solutions in preventing scans of different rates without affecting the network and controller performance.

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  • Jen-Yu WANG, Li-Hsing YEN, Juliana LIMAN
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021TMT0001
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 27, 2022
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    Network Function Virtualization (NFV) enables the embedding of Virtualized Network Function (VNF) into commodity servers. A sequence of VNFs can be chained in a particular order to form a service chain (SC). This paper considers placing multiple SCs in a geo-distributed edge system owned by multiple service providers (SPs). For a pair of SC and SP, minimizing the placement cost while meeting a latency constraint is formulated as an integer programming problem. As SC clients and SPs are self-interested, we study the matching between SCs and SPs that respects individual's interests yet maximizes social welfare. The proposed matching approach excludes any blocking individual and block pair which may jeopardize the stability of the result. Simulation results show that the proposed approach performs well in terms of social welfare but is suboptimal concerning the number of placed SCs.

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  • Takayuki Warabino, Yusuke Suzuki, Tomohiro Otani
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021TMT0002
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 27, 2022
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    While the introduction of softwarelization technologies such as software-defined networking and network function virtualization transfers the main focus of network management from hardware to software, network operators still have to deal with various and numerous network and computing equipment located in network centers. Toward fully automated network management, we believe that a robotic approach will be essential, meaning that physical robots will handle network-facility management works on behalf of humans. This paper focuses on robotic assistance for onsite network maintenance works. Currently, for many network operators, some network maintenance works (e.g., hardware check, hardware installation/replacement, high-impact update of software, etc.) are outsourced to computing and network vendors. Attendance (witness work) at the on-site vendor's works is one of the major tasks of network operators. Network operators confirm the work progress for human error prevention and safety improvement. In order to reduce the burden of this, we propose three essential works of robots, namely delegated attendance at on-site meetings, progress check by periodical patrol, and remote monitoring, which support the various forms of attendance. The paper presents our implementation of enabling these forms of support, and reports the results of experiments conducted in a commercial network center.

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  • Hequn LI, Die LIU, Jiaxi LU, Hai ZHAO, Jiuqiang XU
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2022EBP3028
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 26, 2022
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    Industrial networks need to provide reliable communication services, usually in a redundant transmission (RT) manner. In the past fewyears, several device-redundancy-based, layer 2 solutions have been proposed. However, with the evolution of industrial networks to the Industrial Internet, these methods can no longer work properly in the non-redundancy, layer 3 environments. In this paper, an SDN-based reliable communication framework is proposed for the Industrial Internet. It can provide reliable communication guarantees for mission-critical applications while servicing non-critical applications in a best-effort transmission manner. Specifically, it first implements an RT-based reliable communication method using the Industrial Internet's link-redundancy feature. Next, it presents a redundant synchronization mechanism to prevent end systems from receiving duplicate data. Finally, to maximize the number of critical flows in it (an NP-hard problem), two ILP-based routing & scheduling algorithms are also put forward. These two algorithms are optimal (Scheduling with Unconstrained Routing, SUR) and suboptimal (Scheduling with Minimum length Routing, SMR). Numerous simulations are conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. The results show that it can provide reliable, duplicate-free services to end systems. Its reliable communication method performs better than the conventional best-effort transmission method in terms of packet delivery success ratio in layer 3 networks. In addition, its scheduling algorithm, SMR, performs well on the experimental topologies (with average quality of 93% when compared to SUR), and the time overhead is acceptable.

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  • Yuto MUROKI, Yotaro MURAKAMI, Yoshihisa KISHIYAMA, Kenichi HIGUCHI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3193
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 25, 2022
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    This paper proposes a novel random access identifier (RAID)-linked receiver beamforming method for time division duplex (TDD)-based random access. When the number of receiver antennas at the base station is large in a massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) scenario, the channel estimation accuracy per receiver antenna at the base station receiver is degraded due to the limited received signal power per antenna from the user terminal. This results in degradation in the receiver beamforming (BF) or antenna diversity combining and active RAID detection. The purpose of the proposed method is to achieve accurate active RAID detection and channel estimation with a reasonable level of computational complexity at the base station receiver. In the proposed method, a unique receiver BF vector applied at the base station is linked to each of the M RAIDs prepared by the system. The user terminal selects an appropriate pair comprising a receiver BF vector and a RAID in advance based on the channel estimation results in the downlink assuming channel reciprocity in a TDD system. Therefore, per-receiver antenna channel estimation for receiver BF is not necessary in the proposed method. Furthermore, in order to utilize fully the knowledge of the channel at the user transmitter, we propose applying transmitter filtering (TF) to the proposed method for effective channel shortening in order to increase the orthogonal preambles for active RAID detection and channel estimation prepared for each RAID. Computer simulation results show that the proposed method greatly improves the accuracy of active RAID detection and channel estimation. This results in lower error rates than that for the conventional method performing channel estimation at each antenna in a massive MIMO environment.

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  • Kazuhisa HARAGUCHI, Kosuke SANADA, Hiroyuki HATANO, Kazuo MORI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3190
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 19, 2022
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    In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), wireless power transfer (WPT) has been studied as an energy-harvesting technique for prolonging their network lifetime. The WPT can supply power resources to sensor nodes (SNs) wirelessly, however, the reception (harvesting) power at SNs depends on their distance from a WPT equipment (WPTE), leading to the location-dependent non-uniformity in the reception power among SNs. For the fixed-located WPTE, SNs distant from the WPTE suffer from insufficient reception power. To handle this problem, this paper proposes a novel network structure introducing multiple hybrid access points (HAPs), which equip two functions of conventional cluster head function, including data collection and relay transmission, and WPT function. Then, these HAPs take terms providing both functions. By periodically rotating the HAP providing the WPT function, the location of the WPTE can be changed, which reduces the non-uniformity in the SN reception power. Also, this paper proposes a clustering scheme based on the residual power at SNs to reduce their power depletion under the proposed network structure. The evaluation results through computer simulation show that the proposed system reduces the non-uniformity in the SN reception power and the power depletion at the SNs and then improves the data collection rate, compared with the conventional systems.

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  • Qi ZHOU, Zhongyuan ZHOU, Yixing GU, Mingjie SHENG, Peng HU, Yang XIAO
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3199
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 19, 2022
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    This paper introduces the working principle of continuous wave (CW) illuminator and selects the test space by developing the wave impedance selection algorithm for the CW illuminator. For the vertical polarization and the horizontal polarization of CW illuminator, the law of wave impedance distribution after loading is analyzed and the influence of loading distribution on test space selection is studied. The selection principle of wave impedance based on incident field or total field at the monitoring point is analyzed.

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  • Xiang BI, Shengzhen YANG, Benhong ZHANG, Xing WEI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2022EBP3012
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 19, 2022
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    Multi-hop V2V communication is a fundamental way to realize data transmission in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANET). It has excellent potential in intelligent transportation systems and automatic vehicle driving, and positively affects the safety, reliability, and comfort of vehicles. With advantages in speed and trajectory, distribution along the route, size, etc., the urban buses have become prospective relay nodes for urban VANETs. However, it is a considerable challenge to construct stable and reliable (meeting the requirements of bandwidth, delay, and bit error rate) multi-hop routing because of the complexity of the urban road and bus line network in the communication area, as well as many unevenly distributed buses on the road, etc. Given this above, this paper proposes a new hierarchical routing algorithm based on V2V geographic topology segmentation. Urban hierarchical routing is divided into two layers. The first layer of routing is called coarse routing, which is composed of areas; the second layer of routing is called internal routing (bus routing within the area). Q-learning is used to formulate the sequence of buses that transmit information within each area. Details are as follows: Firstly, based on a city map containing road network information, the entire city is divided into small grids by physical streets. Secondly, based on an analysis of the characteristics of the adjacent grid bus lines, the grids with the same routing attributes are integrated into the same area, reducing the algorithm's computational complexity during route discovery. Then, for the calculated area set, a coarse route composed of the selected area is established by filtering out a group of areas satisfying from the source node to the destination node. Finally, the bus sequence between anchor intersections is selected within the chosen area, and a complete multi-hop route from the source node to the destination node is finally constructed. Sufficient simulations show that the proposed routing algorithm has more stable performance in terms of packet transmission rate, average end-to-end delay, routing duration, and other indicators than similar algorithms.

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  • Ruihua LIU, Yin LI, Ling ZOU, Yude NI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2022EBP3021
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 19, 2022
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    Testing the radio frequency compatibility between Cn-band Satellite Navigation and Microwave Landing System(MLS) has included establishing a specific interference model and reporting the effect of such interference. This paper considers two interference scenarios according to the interfered system. By calculating the Power Flux Density(PFD) values, the interference for Cn-band satellite navigation downlink signal from several visible space stations on MLS service is evaluated. Simulation analysis of the interference for MLS DPSK-data word signal and scanning signal on Cn-band satellite navigation signal is based on the Spectral Separation Coefficient(SSC) and equivalent Carrier-to-Noise Ratio methodologies. Ground tests at a particular military airfield equipped with MLS ground stations were successfully carried out, and some measured data verified the theoretical and numerical results. This study will certainly benefit the design of Cn-band satellite navigation signals and guide the interoperability and compatibility research of Cn-band satellite navigation and MLS.

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  • Yudai YOSHIMOTO, Taro WATANABE, Ryohei NAKAMURA, Hisaya HADAMA
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3204
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 11, 2022
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    With the rapid deployment of the Internet of Things, where various devices are connected to communication networks, remote driving applications for Unmanned Vehicles (UVs) are attracting attention. In addition to automobiles, autonomous driving technology is expected to be applied to various types of equipment, such as small vehicles equipped with surveillance cameras to monitor building internally and externally, autonomous vehicles that deliver office supplies, and wheelchairs. When a UV is remotely controlled, the control accuracy deteriorates due to transmission delay and jitter. The accuracy must be kept high to realize UV control system by a cloud server. In this study, we investigate the effectiveness of Digital Twin Computing (DTC) for path tracking control of a UV. We show the results of simulations that use transmission delay values measured on the Internet with some cloud servers. Through the results, we quantitatively clarify that application of DTC improves control accuracy on path tracking control. We also clarify that application of jitter buffer, which absorbs the transmission delay fluctuation, can further improve the accuracy.

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  • Hiroyuki ASANO, Hiraku OKADA, Chedlia BEN NAILA, Masaaki KATAYAMA
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2022EBP3017
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: May 11, 2022
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    This paper considers an emergency communication system controlling multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in the sky over a large-scale disaster-affected area. This system is based on delay-tolerant networking, and information from ground users is relayed by the UAVs through wireless transmission and the movement of UAVs in a store-and-forward manner. Each UAV moves autonomously according to a predetermined flight method, which uses the positions of other UAVs through communication. In this paper, we propose a new method for UAV flight considering the non-uniformity of user distributions. The method is based on the Voronoi cell using the predicted locations of other UAVs. We evaluate the performance of the proposed method through computer simulations with a non-uniform user distribution generated by a general cluster point process. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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  • Issei KANNO, Kosuke YAMAZAKI, Yoji KISHI, Satoshi KONISHI
    Article type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MEI0001
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 28, 2022
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    5G service has been launched in various countries, and research for the beyond 5G is already underway actively around the world. In beyond 5G, it is expected to expand the various capabilities of communication technologies to cover further wide use cases from 5G. As a candidate elemental technology, cell free massive MIMO has been widely researched and shown its potential to enhance the capabilities from various aspects. However, for deploying this technology in reality, there are still many technical issues such as a cost of distributing antenna and installing fronthaul, and also the scalability aspects. This paper surveys research trends of cell free massive MIMO, especially focusing on the deployment challenges with an introduction to our specific related research activities including some numerical examples.

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  • Sangjoon PARK
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2022EBP3032
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 28, 2022
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    This paper proposes an efficient scheduling algorithm for layered decoding of block low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. To efficiently configure check node-based scheduling groups, the proposed algorithm utilizes the base matrix of the block LDPC code for a block-by-block scheduling group configuration; i.e., the proposed algorithm generates a scheduling group of check nodes, satisfying the weight condition of the layered decoding, which is performed in block units (including several check nodes). Therefore, compared with the conventional scheduling algorithms performed in node units, the proposed algorithm can efficiently generate scheduling groups for layered decoding at low computational complexity and memory requirements. In addition, to accelerate the decoding convergence speed, check nodes are allocated in each scheduling group such that messages from check nodes up to the current group are delivered as evenly as possible to bit nodes. Simulation results confirm that the proposed algorithm can accelerate decoding convergence compared to other block-based scheduling algorithms for layered decoding of block LDPC codes.

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  • Fankun ZENG, Xin QIU, Jinhai LI, Haiyang LIU, Xiaoran CHEN
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3186
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 26, 2022
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    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers often realize anti-jamming capabilities by combining array antennas with space-time adaptive processing (STAP). Unfortunately, in suppressing the interference, basic STAP degrades the GNSS signal. For one thing, additional carrier phase errors and code phase errors to the GNSS signal are introduced; for another, the shape of the cross-correlation function (CCF) will be distorted by STAP, introducing tracking errors when the receiver is in tracking mode. Both of them will eventually cause additional Pseudo-Range (PR) bias, and these problems prevent STAP from being directly applied to high-precision satellite navigation receivers. The paper proposes a novel anti-jamming method based on STAP that solves the above problems. First, the proposed method constructs a symmetric STAP by constraining the STAP coefficients. Subsequently, with the information of the steering vector, a compensation FIR filter is cascaded after the symmetric STAP. This approach ensures that the proposed method introduces only a fixed offset to the code phase and carrier phase, and the order of the STAP completely determines the offset, which can be compensated during PR measurements. Meanwhile, the proposed method maintains the symmetry of the CCF, and the receiver can accurately track the carrier phase and code phase in tracking mode. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated through simulations, which suggest that, in the worst case, our method does not increase carrier and code phase errors and tracking error at the expense of only a 2.86dB drop in interference suppression performance.

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  • Xiaolin HOU, Wenjia LIU, Juan LIU, Xin WANG, Lan CHEN, Yoshihisa KISHI ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3192
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 26, 2022
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    5G has achieved large-scale commercialization across the world and the global 6G research and development is accelerating. To support more new use cases, 6G mobile communication systems should satisfy extreme performance requirements far beyond 5G. The physical layer key technologies are the basis of the evolution of mobile communication systems of each generation, among which three key technologies, i.e., duplex, waveform and multiple access, are the iconic characteristics of mobile communication systems of each generation. In this paper, we systematically review the development history and trend of the three key technologies and define the Non-Orthogonal Physical Layer (NOPHY) concept for 6G, including Non-Orthogonal Duplex (NOD), Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) and Non-Orthogonal Waveform (NOW). Firstly, we analyze the necessity and feasibility of NOPHY from the perspective of capacity gain and implementation complexity. Then we discuss the recent progress of NOD, NOMA and NOW, and highlight several candidate technologies and their potential performance gain. Finally, combined with the new trend of 6G, we put forward a unified physical layer design based on NOPHY that well balances performance against flexibility, and point out the possible direction for the research and development of 6G physical layer key technologies.

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  • Junya TANI, Kenichi HIGUCHI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBT0005
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 26, 2022
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    In this paper, we propose an online probabilistic activation/deactivation control method for base stations (BSs) in heterogeneous networks based on the temporal system throughput and activation states of neighbor BSs (cells). The conventional method iteratively updates the activation/deactivation states in a probabilistic manner at each BS based on the change in the observed system throughput and activation/deactivation states of that BS between past multiple consecutive discrete times. Since BS activation control increases the system throughput by improving the tradeoff between the reduction in inter-cell interference and the traffic off-loading effect, the activation of a BS whose neighbor BSs are deactivated is likely to result in improved system performance and vice versa. The proposed method newly introduces a metric, which represents the effective ratio of the activated neighbor BSs considering their transmission power and distance to the BS of interest, to the update control of the activation probability. This improves both the convergence rate of the iterative algorithm and throughput performance after convergence. Computer simulation results, in which the mobility of the user terminals is taken into account, show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

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  • Rui JIANG, Xiao ZHOU, You Yun XU, Li ZHANG
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3188
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 21, 2022
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    Millimeter wave (mmWave) massive Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems generally adopt hybrid precoding combining digital and analog precoder as an alternative to full digital precoding to reduce RF chains and energy consumption. In order to balance the relationship between spectral efficiency, energy efficiency and hardware complexity, the hybrid-connected system structure should be adopted, and then the solution process of hybrid precoding can be simplified by decomposing the total achievable rate into several sub-rates. However, the singular value decomposition (SVD) incurs high complexity in calculating the optimal unconstrained hybrid precoder for each sub-rate. Therefore, this paper proposes PAST, a low complexity hybrid precoding algorithm based on projection approximate subspace tracking. The optimal unconstrained hybrid precoder of each sub-rate is estimated with the PAST algorithm, which avoids the high complexity process of calculating the left and right singular vectors and singular value matrix by SVD. Simulations demonstrate that PAST matches the spectral efficiency of SVD-based hybrid precoding in full-connected (FC), hybrid-connected (HC) and sub-connected (SC) system structure. Moreover, the superiority of PAST over SVD-based hybrid precoding in terms of complexity and increases with the number of transmitting antennas.

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  • Kentaro NISHIMORI, Kazuki MARUTA, Takefumi HIRAGURI, Hidehisa SHIOMI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MEP0002
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 21, 2022
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    Multibeam massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) configuration has been proposed that selects high-power beams in an analog part and uses a blind algorithm, such as the constant-modulus algorithm (CMA), in the digital part. The CMA does not require channel state information. However, when least-squares CMA (LS-CMA) is applied to a quadrature amplitude modulation signal whose amplitude changes, the interference cancellation effect decreases as the modulation order increases. In this paper, a variable-step-size-based CMA (VS-CMA), which modifies the step size of the steepest-descent CMA, is proposed as a blind adaptive algorithm to replace LS-CMA. The basic performance of VS-CMA, its success in cancelling interference, and its effectiveness in multibeam massive MIMO transmission are verified via simulation and compared with other blind algorithms such as independent component analysis, particularly when the data smoothing size is small.

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  • Gang LI, Shuren GUO, Yi ZHOU, Zaixiu YANG
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2022EBP3020
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 20, 2022
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    Regional Short Message Communication (RSMC) service of BeiDou Navigation Satellite System (BDS) has been widely used in various fields. BDS-3 officially started to provide service in 2020, and the performance of RSMC service was greatly improved, which offers an opportunity for large-scale applications of RSMC in consumer electronic products. Due to the complex application scenarios, the low-cost and low-power of RSMC terminals, a better coding scheme is needed to improve performance. In this paper, we propose a new polar encoding scheme with low code rate and variable code length, which adopts Polarization Weight (PW) to generate the reliability sequence of Polar codes and use a Nested Rate Adaptation Sequence (NRAS) to realize rate adaption for the BDS-3 RSMC. The performance of encoding gain and decoding complexity is analyzed by simulation and experiments. The results validate the effective of this scheme. Compared with Turbo codes, the proposed polar codes scheme achieves about 0.5 dB gain with about 50% decoding complexity when the information length including CRC is 128 and code rate is 1/2. The proposed polar codes scheme provides a good reference for further applications in BDS.

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  • Yasutaka OGAWA, Taichi UTSUNO, Toshihiko NISHIMURA, Takeo OHGANE, Taka ...
    Article type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MEI0004
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 18, 2022
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    A sub-Terahertz band is envisioned to play a great role in 6G to achieve extreme high data-rate communication. In addition to very wide band transmission, we need spatial multiplexing using a hybrid MIMO system. A recently presented paper, however, reveals that the number of observed multipath components in a sub-Terahertz band is very few in indoor environments. A channel with few multipath components is called sparse. The number of layers (streams), i.e. multiplexing gain in a MIMO system does not exceed the number of multipaths. The sparsity may restrict the spatial multiplexing gain of sub-Terahertz systems, and the poor multiplexing gain may limit the data rate of communication systems. This paper describes fundamental considerations on sub-Terahertz MIMO spatial multiplexing in indoor environments. We examined how we should steer analog beams to multipath components to achieve higher channel capacity. Furthermore, for different beam allocation schemes, we investigated eigenvalue distributions of a channel Gram matrix, power allocation to each layer, and correlations between analog beams. Through simulation results, we have revealed that the analog beams should be steered to all the multipath components to lower correlations and to achieve higher channel capacity.

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  • Taichi YAMAGAMI, Satoshi DENNO, Yafei HOU
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3213
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 15, 2022
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    In this paper, we propose a non-orthogonal multiple access with adaptive resource allocation. The proposed non-orthogonal multiple access assigns multiple frequency resources for each device to send packets. Even if the number of devices is more than that of the available frequency resources, the proposed non-orthogonal access allows all the devices to transmit their packets simultaneously for high capacity massive machine-type communications (mMTC). Furthermore, this paper proposes adaptive resource allocation algorithms based on factor graphs that adaptively allocate the frequency resources to the devices for improvement of the transmission performances. This paper proposes two allocation algorithms for the proposed non-orthogonal multiple access. This paper shows that the proposed non-orthogonal multiple access achieves superior transmission performance when the number of the devices is 50% greater than the amount of the resource, i.e., the overloading ratio of 1.5, even without the adaptive resource allocation. The adaptive resource allocation enables the proposed non-orthogonal access to attain a gain of about 5 dB at the BER of 10-4.

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  • Ryogo KUBO
    Article type: INVITED PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MEI0003
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 14, 2022
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    Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) assisted by digital twins (DTs) integrate sensing-actuation loops over communication networks in various infrastructure services and applications. This study overviews the concept, methodology, and applications of the integrated communication quality estimation and control for the DT-assisted CPSs from both communications and control perspectives. The DT-assisted CPSs can be considered as networked control systems (NCSs) with virtual dynamic models of physical entities. A communication quality estimation observer (CQEO), which is an extended version of the communication disturbance observer (CDOB) utilized for time-delay compensation in NCSs, is proposed to estimate the integrated effects of the quality of services (QoS) and cyberattacks on the NCS applications. A path diversity technique with the CQEO is also proposed to achieve reliable NCSs. The proposed technique is applied to two kinds of NCSs: remote motor control and haptic communication systems. Moreover, results of the simulation on a haptic communication systemshow the effectiveness of the proposed approach. In the end, future research directions of the CQEO-based scheme are presented.

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  • Hideki Omote, Akihiro Sato, Sho Kimura, Shoma Tanaka, HoYu Lin
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3109
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 13, 2022
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    High-Altitude Platform Station (HAPS) provides communication services from an altitude of 20 km via a stratospheric platform such as a balloon, solar-powered airship, or other aircraft, and is attracting much attention as a new mobile communication platform for ultra-wide coverage areas and disaster-resilient networks. HAPS can provide mobile communication services directly to the existing smartphones commonly used in terrestrial mobile communication networks such as Fourth Generation Long Term Evolution (4G LTE), and in the near future, Fifth Generation New Radio (5G NR). In order to design efficient HAPS-based cell configurations, we need a radio wave propagation model that takes into consideration factors such as terrain, vegetation, urban areas, suburban areas, and building entry loss.

    In this paper, we propose a new vegetation loss model for Recommendation ITU-R P.833-9 that can take transmission frequency and seasonal characteristics into consideration. It is based on measurements and analyses of the vegetation loss of deciduous trees in different seasons in Japan. Also, we carried out actual stratospheric measurements in the 700 MHz band in Kenya to extend the lower frequency limit. Because the measured results show good agreement with the results predicted by the new vegetation loss model, the model is sufficiently valid in various areas including actual HAPS usage.

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  • Masaki NAKAMORI, Yukihiro GOTO, Tomoya SHIMIZU, Nazuki HONDA
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3138
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 13, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    We proposed a new method for evaluating the deterioration of messenger wires by using terahertz waves. We use terahertz time-domain spectroscopy to measure several twisted wire samples with different levels of deterioration. We find that each twisted wire sample had a different distribution of reflection intensity which was due to the wires' twist structure. We show that it is possible to assess the degradation from the straight lines present in the reflection intensity distribution image. Furthermore, it was confirmed that our method can be applied to wire covered with resin.

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  • Jie LI, Sai LI, Abdul Hayee SHAIKH
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3200
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 13, 2022
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    In this manuscript, we propose a joint channel and power assignment algorithm for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarmcommunication system based on multi-agent deep reinforcement learning (DRL). Regarded as an agent, each UAV to UAV (U2U) link can choose the optimal channel and power according to the current situation after training is successfully completed. Further, a mixing network is introduced based on DRL, where Q values of every single agent are non-linearly mapped, and we call it the QMIX algorithm. As it accesses state information, QMIX can learn to enrich the joint action value function. The proposed method can be used for both unicast and multicast scenarios. Experiments show that each U2U link can be trained to meet the constraints of UAV communication and minimize the interference to the system. For unicast communication, the communication rate is increased up to 15.6% and 8.9% using the proposed DRL method compared with the well-known random and adaptive methods, respectively. For multicast communication, the communication rate is increased up to 6.7% using the proposed QMIX method compared with the DRL method and 13.6% using DRL method compared with adaptive method. Besides, the successful transmission probability can maintain a high level.

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  • Hideki Omote, Akihiro Sato, Sho Kimura, Shoma Tanaka, HoYu Lin, Takash ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3152
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 11, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In recent years, High-Altitude Platform Station (HAPS) has become the most interesting topic for next generation mobile communication systems, because platforms such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), balloons, airships can provide ultra-wide coverage, up to 200 km in diameter, from altitudes of around 20 km. It also offers resiliency to damage caused by disasters and so ensures the stability and reliability of mobile communications. In order to further integrate HAPS with existing terrestrial mobile communication networks in providing mobile services to users, radio wave propagation models such as terrain, vegetation loss, human shielding loss, building entry loss, urban/suburban areas must be taken into consideration when designing HAPS-based cell configurations.

    This paper proposes a human body shielding propagation loss model that considers the basic signal attenuation by the human body at high elevation angles. It also analyzes the effect of changes in actual urban/suburban environments due to the arrival of multipath radio waves for HAPS communications in the frequency range of 0.7 to 3.3 GHz. Measurements in actual urban/rural environments in Japan and actual stratospheric base station measurements in Kenya are carried out to confirm the validity of the proposed model. Since the measured results agree well with the results predicted by the proposed model, the model is good enough to provide estimates of human loss in various environments.

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  • Kota YAMASHITA, Shotaro KAMIYA, Koji YAMAMOTO, Yusuke KODA, Takayuki N ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3197
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 11, 2022
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    In this study, a contextual multi-armed bandit (CMAB)-based decentralized channel exploration framework disentangling a channel utility function (i.e., reward) with respect to contending neighboring access points (APs) is proposed. The proposed framework enables APs to evaluate observed rewards compositionally for contending APs, allowing both robustness against reward fluctuation due to neighboring APs' varying channels and assessment of even unexplored channels. To realize this framework, we propose contention-driven feature extraction (CDFE), which extracts the adjacency relation among APs under contention and forms the basis for expressing reward functions in disentangled form, that is, a linear combination of parameters associated with neighboring APs under contention). This allows the CMAB to be leveraged with a joint linear upper confidence bound (JLinUCB) exploration and to delve into the effectiveness of the proposed framework. Moreover, we address the problem of non-convergence—the channel exploration cycle—by proposing a penalized JLinUCB (P-JLinUCB) based on the key idea of introducing a discount parameter to the reward for exploiting a different channel before and after the learning round. Numerical evaluations confirm that the proposed method allows APs to assess the channel quality robustly against reward fluctuations by CDFE and achieves better convergence properties by P-JLinUCB.

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  • Taichi YAMAKADO, Riki OKAWA, Yukitoshi SANADA
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3172
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 06, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In this paper, a non-linear precoding algorithm with low out-of-band (OOB) radiation is proposed for massive multiple- input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. Massive MIMO sets more than one hundred antennas at each base station to achieve higher spectral efficiency and throughput. Full digital massive MIMO may constrain the resolution of digital-to-analog converters (DACs) since each DAC consumes a large amount of power. In massive MIMO systems with low resolution DACs, designing methods of DAC output signals by nonlinear processing are being investigated. The conventional scheme focuses only on a sum rate or errors in the received signals and so triggers large OOB radiation. This paper proposes an optimization criterion that takes OOB radiation power into account. Gibbs sampling is used as an algorithm to find sub-optimal solutions given this criterion. Numerical results obtained through computer simulation show that the proposed criterion reduces mean OOB radiation power by a factor of 10 as compared with the conventional criterion. The proposed criterion also reduces OOB radiation while increasing the average sum rate by optimizing the weight factor for the OOB radiation. As a result, the proposed criterion achieves approximately 1.3 times higher average sum rates than an error-based criterion. On the other hand, as compared with a sum rate based criterion, the throughput on each subcarrier shows less variation which reduces the number of link adaptation options needed although the average sum rate of the proposed criterion is smaller.

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  • Akira Saitou, Ryo Ishikawa, Kazuhiko Honjo
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3175
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 06, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    Unique spatial eigenmodes for the spherical coordinate system are shown to be successfully synthesized by properly allocated combinations of current distributions along θ ' and ϕ ' on a spherical conformal array. The allocation ratios are analytically found in a closed form with a matrix that relates the expansion coefficients of the current to its radiated field. The coefficients are obtained by general Fourier expansion of the current and the mode expansion of the field, respectively. The validity of the obtained formulas is numerically confirmed, and important effects of the sphere radius and the degrees of the currents on the radiated fields are numerically explained. The formulas are used to design six current distributions that synthesize six unique eigenmodes. The accuracy of the synthesized fields is quantitatively investigated, and the accuracy is shown to be remarkably improved by more than 27 dB with two additional kinds of current distributions.

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  • Ryota SHIINA, Toshihito FUJIWARA, Tomohiro TANIGUCHI, Shunsuke SARUWAT ...
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3185
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 06, 2022
    JOURNAL FREE ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In order to further reduce the transmission rate of multi-channel satellite broadcast signals, whose carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR fluctuates due to rainfall attenuation, we propose a novel digitized radio-over-fiber (DRoF) -based optical re-transmission system based on adaptive combination compression for ultra-high definition (UHD) broadcasting satellite (BS) / communications satellite (CS) broadcast signals. The proposed system reduces the optical re-transmission rate of BS/CS signals as much as possible while handling input CNR fluctuations. Therefore, the transmission rate of communication signals in time-division multiplexing (TDM) transmission is ensured, and network sharing of communication signals and broadcast signals via passive optical network (PON) is realized. Based on the ITU-R P.618-13 prediction model, an experimental evaluation is performed using estimates of the long-term statistics of attenuation due to rainfall. The attenuation is evaluated as a percentage of the time that long-term re-transmission service is available. It is shown that the proposed system is able to accommodate a wide range of rainfall attenuation and achieve a 99.988 % time percentage for the duration of service provision. In order to show the rate reduction effect of the proposed system, the quantization bit reduction effect as a function of the input CNR, which depends on rainfall attenuation, is experimentally confirmed. Experiments show that service operation time of 99.978 % can be achieved by 3-bit transmission. This means a 62.5 % reduction in transmission rate is realized compared to conventional fixed quantization. Furthermore, the average quantization bit number in our system for service operation times is 3.000, indicating that most service operation times are covered by just 3-bit transmission.

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  • Tomonari KURAYAMA, Teruyuki MIYAJIMA, Yoshiki SUGITANI
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021MEP0003
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: April 06, 2022
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    Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) allows several users to multiplex in the power-domain to improve spectral efficiency. To further improve its performance, it is desirable to reduce inter-user interference (IUI). In this paper, we propose a downlink asynchronous NOMA (ANOMA) scheme applicable to frequency-selective channels. The proposed scheme introduces an intentional symbol offset between the multiplexed signals to reduce IUI, and it employs cyclic-prefixed single-carrier transmission with frequency-domain equalization (FDE) to reduce inter-symbol interference. We show that the mean square error for the FDE of the proposed ANOMA scheme is smaller than that of a conventional NOMA scheme. Simulation results show that the proposed ANOMA with appropriate power allocation achieves a better sum rate compared to the conventional NOMA.

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  • Van Hung PHAM, Tuan Hung NGUYEN, Hisashi MORISHITA
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3184
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: March 24, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    In a previous study, we proposed a new method based on copula theory to evaluate the detection performance of distributed-processing multistatic radar systems, in which the dependence of local decisions was modeled by a Gaussian copula with linear dependence and no tail dependence. However, we also noted that one main limitation of the study was the lack of investigations on the tail-dependence and nonlinear dependence among local detectors'inputs whose densities have long tails and are often used to model clutter and wanted signals in high-resolution radars. In this work, we attempt to overcome this shortcoming by extending the application of the proposed method to several types of multivariate copula-based dependence models to clarify the effects of tail-dependence and different dependence models on the system detection performance in detail. Our careful analysis provides two interesting and important clarifications: first, the detection performance degrades significantly with tail dependence; and second, this degradation mainly originates from the upper tail dependence, while the lower tail and nonlinear dependence unexpectedly improve the system performance.

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  • Satoshi DENNO, Yafei HOU
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3187
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: March 24, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    This paper proposes a novel interference cancellation technique that prevents radio receivers from degrading due to periodic interference signals caused by electromagnetic waves emitted from high power circuits. The proposed technique cancels periodic interference signals in the frequency domain, even if the periodic interference signals drift in the time domain. We propose a drift estimation based on a super resolution technique such as ESPRIT. Moreover, we propose a sequential drift estimation to enhance the drift estimation performance. The proposed technique employs a linear filter based on the minimum mean square error criterion with assistance of the estimated drifts for the interference cancellation. The performance of the proposed technique is confirmed by computer simulation. The proposed technique achieves a gain of more than 40 dB at the higher frequency part in the band. The proposed canceler achieves such superior performance, if the parameter sets are carefully selected. The proposed sequential drift estimation relaxes the parameter constraints, and enables the proposed cancellation to achieve the performance upper bound.

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  • Peng YANG, Yu YANG, Puning ZHANG, Dapeng WU, Ruyan WANG
    Article type: PAPER
    Article ID: 2021EBP3130
    Published: 2022
    Advance online publication: March 22, 2022
    JOURNAL RESTRICTED ACCESS ADVANCE PUBLICATION

    The integration of social networking concepts into the Internet of Things has led to the Social Internet of Things (SIoT) paradigm, and trust evaluation is essential to secure interaction in SIoT. In SIoT, when resource-constrained nodes respond to unexpected malicious services and malicious recommendations, the trust assessment is prone to be inaccurate, and the existing architecture has the risk of privacy leakage. An edge-cloud collaborative trust evaluation architecture in SIoT is proposed in this paper. Utilize the resource advantages of the cloud and the edge to complete the trust assessment task collaboratively. An evaluation algorithm of relationship closeness between nodes is designed to evaluate neighbor nodes' reliability in SIoT. A trust computing algorithm with enhanced sensitivity is proposed, considering the fluctuation of trust value and the conflict between trust indicators to enhance the sensitivity of identifying malicious behaviors. Simulation results show that compared with traditional methods, the proposed trust evaluation method can effectively improve the success rate of interaction and reduce the false detection rate when dealing with malicious services and malicious recommendations.

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