IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences
Online ISSN : 1745-1337
Print ISSN : 0916-8508
Volume E100.A , Issue 3
Showing 1-20 articles out of 20 articles from the selected issue
Regular Section
  • Yujie SHI, Li ZENG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 761-768
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    In this paper, we study the problem of noise with regard to the perfect reconstruction of non-bandlimited signals, the class of signals having a finite number of degrees of freedom per unit time. The finite rate of innovation (FRI) method provides a means of recovering a non-bandlimited signal through using of appropriate kernels. In the presence of noise, however, the reconstruction function of this scheme may become ill-conditioned. Further, the reduced sampling rates afforded by this scheme can be accompanied by increased error sensitivity. In this paper, to obtain improved noise robustness, we propose the matrix pencil (MP) method for sample signal reconstruction, which is based on principal component analysis (PCA). Through the selection of an adaptive eigenvalue, a non-bandlimited signal can be perfectly reconstructed via a stable solution of the Yule-Walker equation. The proposed method can obtain a high signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) for the reconstruction results. Herein, the method is applied to certain non-bandlimited signals, such as a stream of Diracs and nonuniform splines. The simulation results demonstrate that the MP and PCA are more effective than the FRI method in suppressing noise. The FRI method can be used in many applications, including those related to bioimaging, radar, and ultrasound imaging.

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  • Huan HAO, Huali WANG, Naveed ur REHMAN, Liang CHEN, Hui TIAN
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 769-775
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    An improved multivariate wavelet denoising algorithm combined with subspace and principal component analysis is presented in this paper. The key element is deriving an optimal orthogonal matrix that can project the multivariate observation signal to a signal subspace from observation space. Univariate wavelet shrinkage operator is then applied to the projected signals channel-wise resulting in the improvement of the output SNR. Finally, principal component analysis is performed on the denoised signal in the observation space to further improve the denoising performance. Experimental results based on synthesized and real world ECG data verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

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  • Cong HAO, Takeshi YOSHIMURA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: VLSI Design Technology and CAD
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 776-784
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    Through-silicon via (TSV) assignment problem is one of the key design challenges of 3-D IC which is crucial to the wire length and signal delay. In this work we formulate the 3-D IC TSV assignment as an Integer Minimum Cost Multi Commodity (IMCMC) problem on a IMCMC network, and propose a multi-level algorithm. It coarsens the IMCMC network level by level, applies a rough flow assignment on each level of coarsened graph, and generates only promising edges to reduce the IMCMC network size. Benefiting from the multi-level structure, we propose a mixed single and multi commodity flow method improve the TSV assignment solution quality. Moreover, given a TSV assignment, we propose an extended layer by layer algorithm to further optimize the TSV assignment. The experimental results demonstrate that our multi-level with mixed single and multi commodity flow algorithm achieves not only smaller wire length but also shorter runtime compared to other existing works.

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  • Takayoshi SHOUDAI, Kazuhide AIKOH, Yusuke SUZUKI, Satoshi MATSUMOTO, T ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Algorithms and Data Structures
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 785-802
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    An efficient means of learning tree-structural features from tree-structured data would enable us to construct effective mining methods for tree-structured data. Here, a pattern representing rich tree-structural features common to tree-structured data and a polynomial time algorithm for learning important tree patterns are necessary for mining knowledge from tree-structured data. As such a tree pattern, we introduce a term tree pattern t such that any edge label of t belongs to a finite alphabet Λ, any internal vertex of t has ordered children and t has a new kind of structured variable, called a height-constrained variable. A height-constrained variable has a pair of integers (i, j) as constraints, and it can be replaced with a tree whose trunk length is at least i and whose height is at most j. This replacement is called height-constrained replacement. A sequence of consecutive height-constrained variables is called a variable-chain. In this paper, we present polynomial time algorithms for solving the membership problem and the minimal language (MINL) problem for term tree patternshaving no variable-chain. The membership problem for term tree patternsis to decide whether or not a given tree can be obtained from a given term tree pattern by applying height-constrained replacements to all height-constrained variables in the term tree pattern. The MINL problem for term tree patternsis to find a term tree pattern t such that the language generated by t is minimal among languages, generated by term tree patterns, which contain all given tree-structured data. Finally, we show that the class, i.e., the set of all term tree patternshaving no variable-chain, is polynomial time inductively inferable from positive data if |Λ| ≥ 2.

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  • Yuhei WATANABE, Takanori ISOBE, Toshihiro OHIGASHI, Masakatu MORII
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 803-810
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    RC4 is a well-known stream cipher designed by Rivest. Due to considerable cryptanalysis efforts over past 20 years, several kinds of statistic biases in a key stream of RC4 have been observed so far. Finally, practical full plaintext recovery attacks on RC4 in SSL/TLS were independently proposed by AlFardan et al. and Isobe et al. in 2013. Responded to these attacks, usage of RC4 has drastically decreased in SSL/TLS. However, according to the research by Trustworthy Internet Movement, RC4 is still used by some websites for the encryption on SSL/TLS. In this paper, we shows a new plaintext recovery attack for RC4 under the assumption of HTTPS. We develop a method for exploiting single-byte and double-byte biases together to efficiently guess the target bytes, while previous attacks use either single-byte biases or double-byte biases. As a result, target plaintext bytes can be extracted with higher probability than previous best attacks given 229 ciphertexts encrypted by randomly-chosen keys. In the most efficient case, the success probability of our attack are more than twice compared to previous best attacks.

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  • Hao CHEN, Tao WANG, Shize GUO, Xinjie ZHAO, Fan ZHANG, Jian LIU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 811-821
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    The differential fault analysis of SOSEMNAUK was presented in Africacrypt in 2011. In this paper, we improve previous work with algebraic techniques which can result in a considerable reduction not only in the number of fault injections but also in time complexity. First, we propose an enhanced method to determine the fault position with a success rate up to 99% based on the single-word fault model. Then, instead of following the design of SOSEMANUK at word levels, we view SOSEMANUK at bit levels during the fault analysis and calculate most components of SOSEMANUK as bit-oriented. We show how to build algebraic equations for SOSEMANUK and how to represent the injected faults in bit-level. Finally, an SAT solver is exploited to solve the combined equations to recover the secret inner state. The results of simulations on a PC show that the full 384 bits initial inner state of SOSEMANUK can be recovered with only 15 fault injections in 3.97h.

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  • Surapol TAN-A-RAM, Watit BENJAPOLAKUL
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Theory
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 822-831
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    In this paper, we propose to use a strategy for the two-user Gaussian X channel with limited receiver cooperation in the general case consisting of two parts: 1) the transmission scheme where the superposition coding is used and 2) the cooperative protocol where the two-round strategy based on quantize-map-and-forward (QMF) is employed. We image that a Gaussian X channel can be considered as a superposition of two Gaussian interference channels based on grouping of the sent messages from each transmitter to the corresponding receivers. Finally, we give an achievable rate region for the general case of this channel.

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  • Takahiro OSHIMA, Tadashi WADAYAMA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 832-838
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    In the present paper, we propose a broadcast ARQ protocol based on the concept of index coding. In the proposed scenario, a server wishes to transmit a finite sequence of packets to multiple receivers via a broadcast channel with packet erasures until all of the receivers successfully receive all of the packets. In the retransmission phase, the server produces a coded packet as a retransmitted packet based on the side-information sent from the receivers via feedback channels. A notable feature of the proposed protocol is that the decoding process at the receiver side has low decoding complexity because only a small number of addition operations are needed in order to recover an intended packet. This feature may be preferable for reducing the power consumption of receivers. The throughput performance of the proposed protocol is close to that of the ideal FEC throughput performance when the erasure probability is less than 0.1. This implies that the proposed protocol provides almost optimal throughput performance in such a regime.

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  • Wei SU
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Coding Theory
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 839-845
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    In this paper, we present two classes of zero difference balanced (ZDB) functions, which are derived by difference balanced functions, and a class of perfect ternary sequences respectively. The proposed functions have parameters not covered in the literature, and can be used to design optimal constant composition codes, and perfect difference systems of sets.

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  • Takanori FUJISAWA, Masaaki IKEHARA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 846-853
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    Image deconvolution is the task to recover the image information that was lost by taking photos with blur. Especially, to perform image deconvolution without prior information about blur kernel, is called blind image deconvolution. This framework is seriously ill-posed and an additional operation is required such as extracting image features. Many blind deconvolution frameworks separate the problem into kernel estimation problem and deconvolution problem. In order to solve the kernel estimation problem, previous frameworks extract the image's salient features by preprocessing, such as edge extraction. The disadvantage of these frameworks is that the quality of the estimated kernel is influenced by the region with no salient edges. Moreover, the optimization in the previous frameworks requires iterative calculation of convolution, which takes a heavy computational cost. In this paper, we present a blind image deconvolution framework using a specified high-pass filter (HPF) for feature extraction to estimate a blur kernel. The HPF-based feature extraction properly weights the image's regions for the optimization problem. Therefore, our kernel estimation problem can estimate the kernel in the region with no salient edges. In addition, our approach accelerates both kernel estimation and deconvolution processes by utilizing a conjugate gradient method in a frequency domain. This method eliminates costly convolution operations from these processes and reduces the execution time. Evaluation for 20 test images shows our framework not only improves the quality of recovered images but also performs faster than conventional frameworks.

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  • Brahmastro KRESNARAMAN, Yasutomo KAWANISHI, Daisuke DEGUCHI, Tomokazu ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 854-864
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    This paper addresses the attribute recognition problem, a field of research that is dominated by studies in the visible spectrum. Only a few works are available in the thermal spectrum, which is fundamentally different from the visible one. This research performs recognition specifically on wearable attributes, such as glasses and masks. Usually these attributes are relatively small in size when compared with the human body, on top of a large intra-class variation of the human body itself, therefore recognizing them is not an easy task. Our method utilizes a decomposition framework based on Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) to extract the attribute information for recognition. However, because it is difficult to separate the body and the attributes without any prior knowledge, noise is also extracted along with attributes, hampering the recognition capability. We made use of prior knowledge; namely the location where the attribute is likely to be present. The knowledge is referred to as the Probability Map, incorporated as a weight in the decomposition by RPCA. Using the Probability Map, we achieve an attribute-wise decomposition. The results show a significant improvement with this approach compared to the baseline, and the proposed method achieved the highest performance in average with a 0.83 F-score.

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  • Jana BACKHUS, Ichigaku TAKIGAWA, Hideyuki IMAI, Mineichi KUDO, Masanor ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Neural Networks and Bioengineering
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 865-876
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    In this paper, we introduce a self-constructive Normalized Gaussian Network (NGnet) for online learning tasks. In online tasks, data samples are received sequentially, and domain knowledge is often limited. Then, we need to employ learning methods to the NGnet that possess robust performance and dynamically select an accurate model size. We revise a previously proposed localized forgetting approach for the NGnet and adapt some unit manipulation mechanisms to it for dynamic model selection. The mechanisms are improved for more robustness in negative interference prone environments, and a new merge manipulation is considered to deal with model redundancies. The effectiveness of the proposed method is compared with the previous localized forgetting approach and an established learning method for the NGnet. Several experiments are conducted for a function approximation and chaotic time series forecasting task. The proposed approach possesses robust and favorable performance in different learning situations over all testbeds.

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  • Akira TANAKA, Hideyuki IMAI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Neural Networks and Bioengineering
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 877-887
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    The solution of the standard 2-norm-based multiple kernel regression problem and the theoretical limit of the considered model space are discussed in this paper. We prove that 1) The solution of the 2-norm-based multiple kernel regressor constructed by a given training data set does not generally attain the theoretical limit of the considered model space in terms of the generalization errors, even if the training data set is noise-free, 2) The solution of the 2-norm-based multiple kernel regressor is identical to the solution of the single kernel regressor under a noise free setting, in which the adopted single kernel is the sum of the same kernels used in the multiple kernel regressor; and it is also true for a noisy setting with the 2-norm-based regularizer. The first result motivates us to develop a novel framework for the multiple kernel regression problems which yields a better solution close to the theoretical limit, and the second result implies that it is enough to use the single kernel regressors with the sum of given multiple kernels instead of the multiple kernel regressors as long as the 2-norm based criterion is used.

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  • Wenzhen YUE, Yan ZHANG, Jingwen XIE
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 888-892
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    The problem of radar constant-modulus (CM) waveform design for the detection of multiple targets is considered in this paper. The CM constraint is imposed from the perspective of hardware realization and full utilization of the transmitter's power. Two types of CM waveforms — the arbitrary-phase waveform and the quadrature phase shift keying waveform — are obtained by maximizing the minimum of the signal-to-clutter-plus-noise ratios of the various targets. Numerical results show that the designed CM waveforms perform satisfactorily, even when compared with their counterparts without constraints on the peak-to-average ratio.

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  • Arata KAWAMURA, Hiro IGARASHI, Youji IIGUNI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 893-895
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    Image-to-sound mapping is a technique that transforms an image to a sound signal, which is subsequently treated as a sound spectrogram. In general, the transformed sound differs from a human speech signal. Herein an efficient image-to-sound mapping method, which provides an understandable speech signal without any training, is proposed. To synthesize such a speech signal, the proposed method utilizes a multi-column image and a speech spectral phase that is obtained from a long-time observation of the speech. The original image can be retrieved from the sound spectrogram of the synthesized speech signal. The synthesized speech and the reconstructed image qualities are evaluated using objective tests.

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  • Ye TIAN, Qiusheng LIAN, Kai LIU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Digital Signal Processing
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 896-901
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    We consider the problem of two-dimensional (2-D) angles of arrival estimation using a newly proposed structure of nonuniform linear array, referred to as nested coprime array with compressed inter-element spacing (CACIS). By constructing a cross-correlation matrix of the received signals, the nested CACIS exhibits a larger number of degrees of freedom. A two-step weighted l1-norm penalty strategy is proposed to fully utilize these degrees of freedom, where the weight matrices are constructed by MUSIC spectrum function and the threshold function, respectively. The proposed method has several salient advantages over the compared method, including increased resolution and accuracy, estimating many more number of sources and suppressing spurious peaks efficiently. Simulation results validate the superiority of the proposed method.

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  • Lei SUN, Fang-Wei FU, Xuan GUANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Cryptography and Information Security
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 902-907
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    Recent research has shown that the class of rotation symmetric Boolean functions is beneficial to cryptographics. In this paper, for an odd prime p, two sufficient conditions for p-variable rotation symmetric Boolean functions to be 1-resilient are obtained, and then several concrete constructions satisfying the conditions are presented. This is the first time that resilient rotation symmetric Boolean functions have been systematically constructed. In particular, we construct a class of 2-resilient rotation symmetric Boolean functions when p=2m+1 for m ≥ 4. Moreover, several classes of 1-order correlation immune rotation symmetric Boolean functions are also got.

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  • Yubo LI, Jiaan SUN, Chengqian XU, Kai LIU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Information Theory
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 908-912
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    Zero correlation zone (ZCZ) aperiodic complementary sequence (ZACS) sets have potential applications in multi-carriers (MC) CDMA communication systems, which can support more users than traditional complementary sequence sets. In this letter, methods for constructing ZACS sets based on orthogonal matrices are proposed. The new constructions may propose ZACS sets with optimal parameters. The new ZACS sets can be applied in approximately synchronized MC-CDMA to remove interferences.

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  • Yuyin YU, Lishan KE, Zhiqiang LIN, Qiuyan WANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Information Theory
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 913-915
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    Permutation polynomials over Zpn are useful in the design of cryptographic algorithms. In this paper, we obtain an equivalent condition for polynomial functions over Zpn to be permutations, and this equivalent condition can help us to analysis the randomness of such functions. Our results provide a method to distinguish permutation polynomials from random functions. We also introduce how to improve the randomness of permutation polynomials over Zpn.

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  • Yong-Jun KIM, Hyoung-Kyu SONG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Communication Theory and Signals
    2017 Volume E100.A Issue 3 Pages 916-919
    Published: March 01, 2017
    Released: March 01, 2017
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    For reliable communication, this letter proposes cooperative transmission scheme with spatial phase coding (SPC) in the edge area among base stations. The diversity method has the a difficulty in terms of the price and complexity in a base station with multiple antennas. Thus, this problem may be resolved by using the cooperative scheme among the base stations and the proposed scheme increases that uses economically resource by using less feedback bits. Especially, if the coverage of many base stations is overlapped, the performance of the proposed scheme is improved. From the simulation results, the proposed scheme has the better performance compared to the conventional scheme in heterogeneous network.

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