IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
Online ISSN : 1745-1361
Print ISSN : 0916-8532
Volume E102.D , Issue 6
Showing 1-15 articles out of 15 articles from the selected issue
Regular Section
  • Yuto MATSUNAGA, Tetsuya KOJIMA, Naofumi AOKI, Yoshinori DOBASHI, Tsuyo ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2019 Volume E102.D Issue 6 Pages 1119-1125
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    We have proposed a novel concept of a digital watermarking technique for music data that focuses on the use of sound synthesis and sound effect techniques. This paper describes the details of our proposed technique that employs the distortion effect, one of the most common sound effects frequently utilized especially for guitar and bass instruments. This paper describes the experimental results of evaluating the resistance of the proposed technique against some basic malicious attacks utilizing MP3 coding, tempo alteration, pitch alteration, and high-pass filtering. It is demonstrated that the proposed technique potentially has appropriate resistance against such attacks except for the high-pass filtering attack. A technique for increasing the resistance against the high-pass filtering attack is also supplementarily discussed.

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  • Linna WEI, Xiaoxiao SONG, Xiao ZHENG, Xuangou WU, Guan GUI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2019 Volume E102.D Issue 6 Pages 1126-1135
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    With the existing of coverage holes, the Quality of Service (such as event response, package delay, and the life time et al.) of a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) may become weaker. In order to recover the holes, one can locate them by identifying the boundary nodes on their edges. Little effort has been made to distinguish the boundary nodes in a model where wireless sensors are randomly deployed on a three-dimensional surface. In this paper, we propose a distributed method which contains three steps in succession. It first projects the 1-hop neighborhood of a sensor to the plane. Then, it sorts the projected nodes according to their angles and finds out if there exists any ring formed by them. At last, the algorithm validates a circle to confirm that it is a ring surrounding the node. Our solution simulates the behavior of rotating a semicircle plate around a sensor under the guidance of its neighbors. Different from the existing results, our method transforms a three-dimensional problem into a two-dimensional one and maintaining its original topology, and it does not rely on any complex Hamiltonian Cycle finding to test the existence of a circle in the neighborhood of a sensor. Simulation results show our method outperforms others at the correctness and effectiveness in identifying the nodes on the edges of a three-dimensional WSN.

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  • Kyohei OSUGE, Hiroya KATO, Shuichiro HARUTA, Iwao SASASE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Dependable Computing
    2019 Volume E102.D Issue 6 Pages 1136-1144
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Android malwares are rapidly becoming a potential threat to users. Among several Android malware detection schemes, the scheme using Inter-Component Communication (ICC) is gathering attention. That scheme extracts numerous ICC-related features to detect malwares by machine learning. In order to mitigate the degradation of detection performance caused by redundant features, Correlation-based Feature Selection (CFS) is applied to feature before machine learning. CFS selects useful features for detection in accordance with the theory that a good feature subset has little correlation with mutual features. However, CFS may remove useful ICC-related features because of strong correlation between them. In this paper, we propose an effective feature selection scheme for Android ICC-based malware detection using the gap of the appearance ratio. We argue that the features frequently appearing in either benign apps or malwares are useful for malware detection, even if they are strongly correlated with each other. To select useful features based on our argument, we introduce the proportion of the appearance ratio of a feature between benign apps and malwares. Since the proportion can represent whether a feature frequently appears in either benign apps or malwares, this metric is useful for feature selection based on our argument. Unfortunately, the proportion is ineffective when a feature appears only once in all apps. Thus, we also introduce the difference of the appearance ratio of a feature between benign apps and malwares. Since the difference simply represents the gap of the appearance ratio, we can select useful features by using this metric when such a situation occurs. By computer simulation with real dataset, we demonstrate our scheme improves detection accuracy by selecting the useful features discarded in the previous scheme.

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  • Eiji KONAKA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining
    2019 Volume E102.D Issue 6 Pages 1145-1153
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This study tries to construct an accurate ranking method for five team ball games at the Olympic Games. First, the study uses a statistical rating method for team ball games. A single parameter, called a rating, shows the strength and skill of each team. We assume that the difference between the rating values explains the scoring ratio in a match based on a logistic regression model. The rating values are estimated from the scores of major international competitions that are held before the Rio Olympic Games. The predictions at the Rio Olympic Games demonstrate that the proposed method can more accurately predict the match results than the official world rankings or world ranking points. The proposed method enabled 262 correct predictions out of 370 matches, whereas using the official world rankings resulted in only 238 correct predictions. This result shows a significant difference between the two criteria.

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  • Qi ZHANG, Hiroaki SASAKI, Kazushi IKEDA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining
    2019 Volume E102.D Issue 6 Pages 1154-1162
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Estimation of the gradient of the logarithm of a probability density function is a versatile tool in statistical data analysis. A recent method for model-seeking clustering called the least-squares log-density gradient clustering (LSLDGC) [Sasaki et al., 2014] employs a sophisticated gradient estimator, which directly estimates the log-density gradients without going through density estimation. However, the typical implementation of LSLDGC is based on a spherical Gaussian function, which may not work well when the probability density function for data has highly correlated local structures. To cope with this problem, we propose a new gradient estimator for log-density gradients with Gaussian mixture models (GMMs). Covariance matrices in GMMs enable the new estimator to capture the highly correlated structures. Through the application of the new gradient estimator to mode-seeking clustering and hierarchical clustering, we experimentally demonstrate the usefulness of our clustering methods over existing methods.

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  • Rachelle RIVERO, Yuya ONUMA, Tsuyoshi KATO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Pattern Recognition
    2019 Volume E102.D Issue 6 Pages 1163-1170
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    It has been reported repeatedly that discriminative learning of distance metric boosts the pattern recognition performance. Although the ITML (Information Theoretic Metric Learning)-based methods enjoy an advantage that the Bregman projection framework can be applied for optimization of distance metric, a weak point of ITML-based methods is that the distance threshold for similarity/dissimilarity constraints must be determined manually, onto which the generalization performance is sensitive. In this paper, we present a new formulation of metric learning algorithm in which the distance threshold is optimized together. Since the optimization is still in the Bregman projection framework, the Dykstra algorithm can be applied for optimization. A nonlinear equation has to be solved to project the solution onto a half-space in each iteration. We have developed an efficient technique for projection onto a half-space. We empirically show that although the distance threshold is automatically tuned for the proposed metric learning algorithm, the accuracy of pattern recognition for the proposed algorithm is comparable, if not better, to the existing metric learning methods.

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  • Jungang GUAN, Fengwei AN, Xiangyu ZHANG, Lei CHEN, Hans Jürgen MATTAUS ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
    2019 Volume E102.D Issue 6 Pages 1171-1182
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Efficient road-lane detection is expected to be achievable by application of the Hough transform (HT) which realizes high-accuracy straight-line extraction from images. The main challenge for HT-hardware implementation in actual applications is the trade-off optimization between accuracy maximization, power-dissipation reduction and real-time requirements. We report a HT-hardware architecture for road-lane detection with parallelized voting procedure, local maximum algorithm and FPGA-prototype implementation. Parallelization of the global design is realized on the basis of θ-value discretization in the Hough space. Four major hardware modules are developed for edge detection in the original video frames, computation of the characteristic edge-pixel values (ρ,θ) in Hough-space, voting procedure for each (ρ,θ) pair with parallel local-maximum-based peak voting-point extraction in Hough space to determine the detected straight lines. Implementation of a prototype system for real-time road-lane detection on a low-cost DE1 platform with a Cyclone II FPGA device was verified to be possible. An average detection speed of 135 frames/s for VGA (640x480)-frames was achieved at 50 MHz working frequency.

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  • Ming LI, Li SHI, Xudong CHEN, Sidan DU, Yang LI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
    2019 Volume E102.D Issue 6 Pages 1183-1196
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The large computational complexity makes stereo matching a big challenge in real-time application scenario. The problem of stereo matching in a video sequence is slightly different with that in a still image because there exists temporal correlation among video frames. However, no existing method considered temporal consistency of disparity for algorithm acceleration. In this work, we proposed a scheme called the dynamic disparity range (DDR) to optimize matching cost calculation and cost aggregation steps by narrowing disparity searching range, and a scheme called temporal cost aggregation path to optimize the cost aggregation step. Based on the schemes, we proposed the DDR-SGM and the DDR-MCCNN algorithms for the stereo matching in video sequences. Evaluation results showed that the proposed algorithms significantly reduced the computational complexity with only very slight loss of accuracy. We proved that the proposed optimizations for the stereo matching are effective and the temporal consistency in stereo video is highly useful for either improving accuracy or reducing computational complexity.

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  • Tsuneo KATO, Atsushi NAGAI, Naoki NODA, Jianming WU, Seiichi YAMAMOTO
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Natural Language Processing
    2019 Volume E102.D Issue 6 Pages 1197-1205
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Data-driven untying of a recursive autoencoder (RAE) is proposed for utterance intent classification for spoken dialogue systems. Although an RAE expresses a nonlinear operation on two neighboring child nodes in a parse tree in the application of spoken language understanding (SLU) of spoken dialogue systems, the nonlinear operation is considered to be intrinsically different depending on the types of child nodes. To reduce the gap between the single nonlinear operation of an RAE and intrinsically different operations depending on the node types, a data-driven untying of autoencoders using part-of-speech (PoS) tags at leaf nodes is proposed. When using the proposed method, the experimental results on two corpora: ATIS English data set and Japanese data set of a smartphone-based spoken dialogue system showed improved accuracies compared to when using the tied RAE, as well as a reasonable difference in untying between two languages.

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  • Wenting WEI, Kun WANG, Gu BAN, Keming FENG, Xuan WANG, Huaxi GU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2019 Volume E102.D Issue 6 Pages 1206-1209
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Network virtualization is viewed as a promising approach to facilitate the sharing of physical infrastructure among different kinds of users and applications. In this letter, we propose a topological consistency-based virtual network embedding (TC-VNE) over elastic optical networks (EONs). Based on the concept of topological consistency, we propose a new node ranking approach, named Sum-N-Rank, which contributes to the reduction of optical path length between preferred substrate nodes. In the simulation results, we found our work contributes to improve spectral efficiency and balance link load simultaneously without deteriorating blocking probability.

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  • Wook KIM, Daehee KIM
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2019 Volume E102.D Issue 6 Pages 1210-1214
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Among the five carrier aggregation (CA) deployment scenarios, the most preferred scenario is Scenario 1, which maximizes CA gain by fully overlapping a primary cell (PCell) and one or more secondary cells (SCells). It is possible since the same frequency band is used between component carriers (CCs) so nearly the same coverage is expected. However, Scenario 1 cannot guarantee high throughput in multi-radio access technology carrier aggregation (multi-RAT CA) which is actively being researched. Different carrier frequency characteristics in multi-RAT CA makes it hard to accurately match different frequency ranges. If the ranges of PCell and SCell differ, high throughput may not be obtained despite the CA operation. We found a coverage mismatch of approximately 37% between the PCell and SCell in the deployed network and realized a reduced CA gain in those areas. In this paper, we propose a novel PCell change approach named “PCell frequency switching (PFS)” to guarantee high throughput against cell coverage mismatch in multi-RAT CA deployment scenario 1. The experiment results show that the throughput increased by 9.7% on average and especially by 80.9% around the cell edge area when PFS is applied instead of the legacy CA handover operation.

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  • Guoqi LI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Dependable Computing
    2019 Volume E102.D Issue 6 Pages 1215-1217
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Nowadays, many household computers are used to mine ASIC-resistant cryptocurrency, which brings serious safety risks. In this letter, a light weight system is put forward to achieve proactive risk management for the kind of mining. Based on the system requirement analysis, a brief system design is presented and furthermore, key techniques to implement it with open source hardware and software are given to show its feasibility.

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  • Daiki SEKIZAWA, Shinnosuke TAKAMICHI, Hiroshi SARUWATARI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Speech and Hearing
    2019 Volume E102.D Issue 6 Pages 1218-1221
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This article proposes a prosody correction method based on partial model adaptation for Chinese-accented Japanese hidden Markov model (HMM)-based text-to-speech synthesis. Although text-to-speech synthesis built from non-native speech accurately reproduces the speaker's individuality in synthetic speech, the naturalness of the synthetic speech is strongly degraded. In the proposed model, to improve the naturalness while preserving the speaker individuality of Chinese-accented Japanese text-to-speech synthesis, we partially utilize HMM parameters of native Japanese speech to synthesize prosody-corrected synthetic speech. Results of an experimental evaluation demonstrate that duration and F0 correction are significantly effective for improving naturalness.

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  • Minghao TANG, Yuan ZONG, Wenming ZHENG, Jisheng DAI, Jingang SHI, Peng ...
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
    2019 Volume E102.D Issue 6 Pages 1222-1226
    Published: June 01, 2019
    Released: June 01, 2019
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Micro-expression is one type of special facial expressions and usually occurs when people try to hide their true emotions. Therefore, recognizing micro-expressions has potential values in lots of applications, e.g., lie detection. In this letter, we focus on such a meaningful topic and investigate how to make full advantage of the color information provided by the micro-expression samples to deal with the micro-expression recognition (MER) problem. To this end, we propose a novel method called color space fusion learning (CSFL) model to fuse the spatiotemporal features extracted in different color space such that the fused spatiotemporal features would be better at describing micro-expressions. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed CSFL method, extensive MER experiments on a widely-used spatiotemporal micro-expression database SMIC is conducted. The experimental results show that the CSFL can significantly improve the performance of spatiotemporal features in coping with MER tasks.

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