Autonomous Decentralized System (ADS) has been making progress in these 31 years since it was proposed in 1977. During these long years in the rapidly advancing computer and communication technologies, the ADS concept has not been changed but its technologies have been growing in accordance with the change and diversity of the social, economical and personal requirements and through the globalization of the market and the restructuring organizations. The ADS technologies are system-atized to cover all processes of system design, operation, maintenance and modification. This paper reviews the work done in fields of ADS in past 31 years from not only technological perspectives, but it also encompasses users requirements and value, system design, industrial activity, academic activity and standardization -. Moreover the new directions of the ADS are suggested.
The steady approach of advanced nations toward realization of ubiquitous computing societies has given birth to rapidly growing demands for new-generation distributed computing (DC) applications. Consequently, economic and reliable construction of new-generation DC applications is currently a major issue faced by the software technology research community. What is needed is a new-generation DC software engineering technology which is at least multiple times more effective in constructing new-generation DC applications than the currently practiced technologies are. In particular, this author believes that a new-generation building-block (BB), which is much more advanced than the current-generation DC object that is a small extension of the object model embedded in languages C++, Java, and C#, is needed. Such a BB should enable systematic and economic construction of DC applications that are capable of taking critical actions with 100-microsecond-level or even 10-microsecond-level timing accuracy, fault tolerance, and security enforcement while being easily expandable and taking advantage of all sorts of network connectivity. Some directions considered worth pursuing for finding such BBs are discussed.
The market and users' requirements have been rapidly changing and diversified. Under these heterogeneous and dynamic situations, not only the system structure itself, but also the accessible information services would be changed constantly. To cope with the continuously changing conditions of service provision and utilization, Faded Information Field (FIF) has been proposed, which is a agent-based distributed information service system architecture. In the case of a mono-service request, the system is designed to improve users' access time and preserve load balancing through the information structure. However, with interdependent requests of multi-service increasing, adaptability and timeliness have to be assured by the system. In this paper, the relationship that exists among the correlated services and the users' preferences for separate and integrated services is clarified. Based on these factors, the autonomous preference-aware information services integration technology to provide one-stop service for users multi-service requests is proposed. As compared to the conventional system, we show that proposed technology is able to reduce the total access time.
A component framework for building and operating visual interfaces for context-aware services in ubiquitous computing environments is presented. By using a compound-document technology, it provides physical entities, places, stationary or mobile computing devices, and services with visual components as multimedia representations to enable them to be annotated and controlled them. It can automatically assemble visual components into a visual interface for monitoring and managing context-aware services according to the spatial-containment relationships between their targets in the physical world by using underlying location-sensing systems. End-users can manually deploy and customize context-aware services through user-friendly GUI-based manipulations for editing documents. This paper presents the design for this framework and describes its implementation and practical applications in user/location-aware assistant systems in two museums.
Autonomous Decentralized Community System (ADCS) makes its basis on offering customized and dynamic services to group of end-users having common preferences at specified time and location. Owing to extreme dynamism in the system caused by rapidly varying user's demands, and severe mobility of users, it is quite difficult to assure timely service provision to all community members. This paper presents autonomous decentralized community system construction by autonomous division and integration technologies to procure service assurance under dynamic situations, without involving significant communication overhead. By adopting the concept of size threshold, the proposed technique continuously maintains the appropriate size of community in constantly and rapidly changing operating environment, to deliver optimal quality of service in terms of response time. The effectiveness of proposed technology has been shown through simulation, which reveals remarkable improvement (up to 29%) in response time.
Wireless technology has become widely popular and an important means of communication. A key issue in delivering wireless services is the problem of congestion which has an adverse impact on the Quality of Service (QoS), especially timeliness. Although a lot of work has been done in the context of RRM (Radio Resource Management), the deliverance of quality service to the end user still remains a challenge. Therefore there is need for a system that provides real-time services to the users through high assurance. We propose an intelligent agent-based approach to guarantee a predefined Service Level Agreement (SLA) with heterogeneous user requirements for appropriate bandwidth allocation in QoS sensitive cellular networks. The proposed system architecture exploits Case Based Reasoning (CBR) technique to handle RRM process of congestion management. The system accomplishes predefined SLA through the use of Retrieval and Adaptation Algorithm based on CBR case library. The proposed intelligent agent architecture gives autonomy to Radio Network Controller (RNC) or Base Station (BS) in accepting, rejecting or buffering a connection request to manage system bandwidth. Instead of simply blocking the connection request as congestion hits the system, different buffering durations are allocated to diverse classes of users based on their SLA. This increases the opportunity of connection establishment and reduces the call blocking rate extensively in changing environment. We carry out simulation of the proposed system that verifies efficient performance for congestion handling. The results also show built-in dynamism of our system to cater for variety of SLA requirements.
A QoS management technique based on an autonomous decentralized mobility system, which is an autonomous decentralized system enhanced to provide mobile stations with information about urgent roadway situations, is proposed in this paper. This technique enables urgent messages to be flexibly and quickly transmitted to mobile stations by multiple decentralized base stations using dedicated short range communication. It also supports the easy addition of additional base stations. Each station autonomously creates information-delivery communities based on the urgency of the messages it receives through the roadside network and the distances between the senders and receivers. Each station dynamically determines the urgency of messages according to the message content and the speed of the mobile stations. Evaluation of this technique applied to the Smart Gateway system, which provides driving-assistance services to mobile stations through dedicated short-range communication, demonstrated its effectiveness and that it is suitable for actual systems.
The control and diagnosis networks in Maglev Train are the most important parts. In the paper, the control and diagnosis network structures are discussed, and the disadvantages of them are described and analyzed. In virtue of role automation decentralized system (RoADS), some basic ideas of RoADS are applied in new network. The structure, component parts and application of new network are proposed, designed and discussed in detail. The comparison results show that new network not only embodies some RoADS' ideas but also better meets the demands of control and diagnosis networks in Maglev Train.
We have developed a novel railway signal control system that operates as a distributed system. It consists of a central control unit (called LC) and terminal devices (called FC) that are distributed at the railroad wayside and operate signal devices. The Internet technologies and optical LAN technologies have been used as communication methods between the LC and the FCs. While handling enormous amount of electric cables may cause human errors, the system is expected to reduce troubles of the current signal system at construction works thanks to the Internet technologies. The FC is a distributed terminal device that has its own processor and placed at the railroad wayside to control the field signal devices. The LC is a centralized computer device that has software arranged by the function of the field devices. An optical network system and multiple communication paths between the LC and the FCs realize durable transmissions. Moreover, the assure performance of controls and transmissions have been investigated, and the autonomous distributed signal control system is also discussed as the next steps of the system.
We present a systematic and efficient way of managing the path metric memory and simplifying its connection network to the add_compare_select unit (ACSU) for Viterbi decoder (VD) design. Using the derived equations for memory partition and add-compare-select (ACS) arrangement together with the extended in-place scheduling scheme proposed in this work, we can increase the memory bandwidth for conflict-free path metric accesses with hardwired interconnection between the path metric memory and ACSU. Compared with the existing work, the developed architecture possesses the following advantages: (1) Each partitioned memory bank can be treated as a local memory of a specific processing element, inside the ACSU, with hardwired interconnection, so that the interconnect complexity is reduced significantly. (2) The partitioned memory banks can be merged into only two pseudo-banks regardless of the number of adopted ACS processing elements. This not only greatly simplifies the design of address generation unit, but also makes smaller the physical size of required memory. (3) The implementation can be accomplished in a systematic way with regular and simple controlling circuitry. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed architecture and the benefit will be more apparent for convolutional codes with large memory order.
The multi-process execution in dynamically reconfigurable processors is a technique to enhance throughput by trying to exploit more inherent parallelism of applications. Basically, a total process for an application is divided into small processes, assigned into limited areas of a reconfigurable array, and concurrently executed in a pipelined manner. In order to improve the efficiency of the multi-process execution, a systematic method for mapping processes onto a reconfigurable array consisting of multiple hardware execution units is essential. This paper proposes and investigates a systematic method for mapping an application modeled as a Kahn Process Network onto a dynamically reconfigurable processing array. In order to execute streaming applications in a pipelined manner, the size of Tiles, which is a unit area of dynamically reconfigurable array, and the grouping of processes are adjusted. Using real applications such as DCT, JPEG encoder and Turbo encoder, the impact of different versions mapped onto the NEC Dynamically Reconfigurable Processor on performance is evaluated. Evaluation results show that our proposed mapping algorithm achieves the best performance in terms of the throughput and the execution time.
A software birthmark means the inherent characteristics of a program that can be used to identify the program. A comparison of such birthmarks facilitates the detection of software theft. In this paper, we propose a static Java birthmark based on a set of stack patterns, which reflect the characteristic of Java applications. A stack pattern denotes a sequence of bytecodes that share their operands through the operand stack. A weight scheme is used to balance the influence of each bytecode in a comparison of the birthmarks. We evaluate the proposed birthmark with respect to two properties required for a birthmark: credibility and resilience. The empirical results show that the proposed birthmark is highly credible and resilient to program transformation. We also compare the proposed birthmark with existing birthmarks, such as that of Tamada et al. and the k-gram birthmark. The experimental results show that the proposed birthmark is more stable than the birthmarks in terms of resilience to program transformation. Thus, the proposed birthmark can provide more reliable evidence of software theft when the software is modified by someone other than author.
Contourlet transform (CT) is a new image representation method, which can efficiently represent contours and textures in images. However, CT is a kind of overcomplete transform with a redundancy factor of 4/3. If it is applied to image compression straightforwardly, the encoding bit-rate may increase to meet a given distortion. This fact baffles the coding community to develop CT-based image compression techniques with satisfactory performance. In this paper, we analyze the distribution of significant contourlet coefficients in different subbands and propose a new contourlet-based embedded image coding (CEIC) scheme on low bit-rate. The well-known wavelet-based embedded image coding (WEIC) algorithms such as EZW, SPIHT and SPECK can be easily integrated into the proposed scheme by constructing a virtual low frequency subband, modifying the coding framework of WEIC algorithms according to the structure of contourlet coefficients, and adopting a high-efficiency significant coefficient scanning scheme for CEIC scheme. The proposed CEIC scheme can provide an embedded bit-stream, which is desirable in heterogeneous networks. Our experiments demonstrate that the proposed scheme can achieve the better compression performance on low bit-rate. Furthermore, thanks to the contourlet adopted in the proposed scheme, more contours and textures in the coded images are preserved to ensure the superior subjective quality.
Using query-by-sketch we propose an application to efficiently create collages with some user interaction. Using rough color strokes that represent the target collage, images are automatically retrieved and segmented to create a seamless collage. The database is indexed using simple geometrical and color features for each region, and histograms that represent these features for each image. The image collection is then queried by means of a simple paint tool. The individual segments retrieved are added to the collage using Poisson image editing or alpha matting. The user is able to modify the default segmentations interactively, as well as the position, scale, and blending options for each object. The resulting collage can then be used as an input query to find other relevant images from the database.
This paper introduces multiple view geometry under projective projection from four-dimensional, space to two-dimensional space which can represent multiple view geometry under the projection of space-time. We show the multifocal tensors defined under space-time projective projection can be derived from non-rigid object motions viewed from multiple cameras with arbitrary translational motions, and they are practical for generating images of non-rigid object motions viewed from cameras with arbitrary translational motions. The method is tested in real image sequences.
In this paper, we propose a new mask estimation method for the computational auditory scene analysis (CASA) of speech using two microphones. The proposed method is based on a hidden Markov model (HMM) in order to incorporate an observation that the mask information should be correlated over contiguous analysis frames. In other words, HMM is used to estimate the mask information represented as the interaural time difference (ITD) and the interaural level difference (ILD) of two channel signals, and the estimated mask information is finally employed in the separation of desired speech from noisy speech. To show the effectiveness of the proposed mask estimation, we then compare the performance of the proposed method with that of a Gaussian kernel-based estimation method in terms of the performance of speech recognition. As a result, the proposed HMM-based mask estimation method provided an average word error rate reduction of 61.4% when compared with the Gaussian kernel-based mask estimation method.
A new mesh reconstruction technique, called dividing virtual belt algorithm (DVBA), is proposed for approximating the surface from a set of wire-frame contours. DVBA decomposes the branching region into a set of virtual belts and virtual canyons. A tiling technique based on the divide-and-conquer strategy is also introduced to approximate the surface from the virtual belt, and the virtual canyons are covered by a conventional polygon triangulation technique. The experimental result shows that our method works well even though there are many complicated branches in the object.
Clustering is indispensable to obtain a general view of series data from a number of data such as gene expression profiles. We propose a novel metric for clustering. The proposed metric automatically normalizes data to minimize a logarithmic scale distance between the data series.