IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
Online ISSN : 1745-1361
Print ISSN : 0916-8532
Volume E99.D , Issue 11
Showing 1-27 articles out of 27 articles from the selected issue
Regular Section
  • Tian CHEN, Dandan SHEN, Xin YI, Huaguo LIANG, Xiaoqing WEN, Wei WANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Computer System
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2672-2681
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Linear feedback shift register (LFSR) reseeding is an effective method for test data reduction. However, the test patterns generated by LFSR reseeding generally have high toggle rate and thus cause high test power. Therefore, it is feasible to fill X bits in deterministic test cubes with 0 or 1 properly before encoding the seed to reduce toggle rate. However, X-filling will increase the number of specified bits, thus increase the difficulty of seed encoding, what's more, the size of LFSR will increase as well. This paper presents a test frame which takes into consideration both compression ratio and power consumption simultaneously. In the first stage, the proposed reseeding-oriented X-filling proceeds for shift power (shift filling) and capture power (capture filling) reduction. Then, encode the filled test cubes using the proposed Compatible Block Code (CBC). The CBC can X-ize specified bits, namely turning specified bits into X bits, and can resolve the conflict between low-power filling and seed encoding. Experiments performed on ISCAS'89 benchmark circuits show that our scheme attains a compression ratio of 94.1% and reduces capture power by at least 15% and scan-in power by more than 79.5%.

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  • Mauricio KUGLER, Teemu TOSSAVAINEN, Susumu KUROYANAGI, Akira IWATA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Computer System
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2682-2693
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Sound localization systems are widely studied and have several potential applications, including hearing aid devices, surveillance and robotics. However, few proposed solutions target portable systems, such as wearable devices, which require a small unnoticeable platform, or unmanned aerial vehicles, in which weight and low power consumption are critical aspects. The main objective of this research is to achieve real-time sound localization capability in a small, self-contained device, without having to rely on large shaped platforms or complex microphone arrays. The proposed device has two surface-mount microphones spaced only 20 mm apart. Such reduced dimensions present challenges for the implementation, as differences in level and spectra become negligible, and only time-difference of arrival (TDoA) can be used as a localization cue. Three main issues have to be addressed in order to accomplish these objectives. To achieve real-time processing, the TDoA is calculated using zero-crossing spikes applied to the hardware-friendly Jeffers model. In order to make up for the reduction in resolution due to the small dimensions, the signal is upsampled several-fold within the system. Finally, a coherence-based spectral masking is used to select only frequency components with relevant TDoA information. The proposed system was implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based platform, due to the large amount of concurrent and independent tasks, which can be efficiently parallelized in reconfigurable hardware devices. Experimental results with white-noise and environmental sounds show high accuracies for both anechoic and reverberant conditions.

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  • Yao HU, Ikki FUJIWARA, Michihiro KOIBUCHI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Computer System
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2694-2704
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    A number of parallel applications run on a high-performance computing (HPC) system simultaneously. Job mapping and scheduling become crucial to improve system utilization, because fragmentation prevents an incoming job from being assigned even if there are enough compute nodes unused. Wireless supercomputers and datacenters with free-space optical (FSO) terminals have been proposed to replace the conventional wired interconnection so that a diverse application workload can be better supported by changing their network topologies. In this study we firstly present an efficient job mapping by swapping the endpoints of FSO links in a wireless HPC system. Our evaluation shows that an FSO-equipped wireless HPC system can achieve shorter average queuing length and queuing time for all the dispatched user jobs. Secondly, we consider the use of a more complicated and enhanced scheduling algorithm, which can further improve the system utilization over different host networks, as well as the average response time for all the dispatched user jobs. Finally, we present the performance advantages of the proposed wireless HPC system under more practical assumptions such as different cabinet capacities and diverse subtopology packings.

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  • Kenta SERIZAWA, Sayaka KAMEI, Syuhei HAYASHI, Satoshi FUJITA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Data Engineering, Web Information Systems
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2705-2715
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this paper, a new scheme for personalized web page recommendation using multi-user search engine query information is proposed. Our contribution is a scheme that improves the accuracy of personalization for various types of contents (e.g., documents, images and music) without increasing user burden. The proposed scheme combines “preference footprints” for browsed pages with collaborative filtering. We acquire user interest using words that are relevant to queries submitted by users, attach all user interests to a page as a footprint when it is browsed, and evaluate the relevance of web pages in relation to words in footprints. The performance of the scheme is evaluated experimentally. The results indicate that the proposed scheme improves the precision and recall of previous schemes by 1%-24% and 80%-107%, respectively.

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  • Dongxu CHENG, Jianwei LIU, Zhenyu GUAN, Tao SHANG
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2716-2722
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Established in self-organized mode between mobile terminals (MT), mobile Ad Hoc networks are characterized by a fast change of network topology, limited power dissipation of network node, limited network bandwidth and poor security of the network. Therefore, this paper proposes an efficient one round certificateless authenticated group key agreement (OR-CLAGKA) protocol to satisfy the security demand of mobile Ad Hoc networks. Based on elliptic curve public key cryptography (ECC), OR-CLAGKA protocol utilizes the assumption of elliptic curve discrete logarithm problems (ECDLP) to guarantee its security. In contrast with those certificateless authenticated group key agreement (GKA) protocols, OR-CLAGKA protocol can reduce protocol data interaction between group users and it is based on efficient ECC public key infrastructure without calculating bilinear pairings, which involves negligible computational overhead. Thus, it is particularly suitable to deploy OR-CLAGKA protocol on MT devices because of its limited computation capacity and power consumption. Also, under the premise of keeping the forward and backward security, OR-CLAGKA protocol has achieved appropriate optimization to improve the performance of Ad Hoc networks in terms of frequent communication interrupt and reconnection. In addition, it has reduced executive overheads of key agreement protocol to make the protocol more suitable for mobile Ad Hoc network applications.

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  • Widiant, Masaki HASHIZUME, Shohei SUENAGA, Hiroyuki YOTSUYANAGI, Akir ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Dependable Computing
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2723-2733
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this paper, a built-in test circuit for an electrical interconnect test method is proposed to detect an open defect occurring at an interconnect between an IC and a printed circuit board. The test method is based on measuring the supply current of an inverter gate in the test circuit. A time-varying signal is provided to an interconnect as a test signal by the built-in test circuit. In this paper, the test circuit is evaluated by SPICE simulation and by experiments with a prototyping IC. The experimental results reveal that a hard open defect is detectable by the test method in addition to a resistive open defect and a capacitive open one at a test speed of 400 kHz.

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  • Akinori HIDAKA, Takio KURITA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2734-2744
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Kernel discriminant analysis (KDA) is the mainstream approach of nonlinear discriminant analysis (NDA). Since it uses the kernel trick, KDA does not consider its nonlinear discriminant mapping explicitly. In this paper, another NDA approach where the nonlinear discriminant mapping is analytically given is developed. This study is based on the theory of optimal nonlinear discriminant analysis (ONDA) of which the nonlinear mapping is exactly expressed by using the Bayesian posterior probability. This theory indicates that various NDA can be derived by estimating the Bayesian posterior probability in ONDA with various estimation methods. Also, ONDA brings an insight about novel kernel functions, called discriminant kernel (DK), which is defined by also using the posterior probabilities. In this paper, several NDA and DK derived from ONDA with several posterior probability estimators are developed and evaluated. Given fine estimation methods of the Bayesian posterior probability, they give good discriminant spaces for visualization or classification.

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  • Hiroshi MATSUURA
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Artificial Intelligence, Data Mining
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2745-2758
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The Steiner tree problem is a nondeterministic-polynomial-time-complete problem, so heuristic polynomial-time algorithms have been proposed for finding multicast trees. However, these polynomial-time algorithms' tree-cost optimality rates are not sufficient to obtain effective multicast trees, so intelligence algorithms, such as the genetic algorithm and artificial fish swarm algorithm, were proposed to improve previously proposed polynomial-time algorithms. However, these intelligence algorithms are time-consuming, even though they can reach quasi-optimal multicast trees. This paper proposes the multi-agent branch-based multicast (BBMC) algorithm, which can maintain the fast speed of polynomial-time algorithms while matching the tree-cost optimality of intelligence algorithms. The advantage of the proposed multi-agent BBMC algorithm is its covering of discarded effective branch candidates to seek the optimal multicast tree. By saving these branch candidates, the algorithm incurs tree-costs that are as small as those of intelligence algorithms, and by saving only a limited number of effective candidates, the algorithm is much faster than intelligence algorithms.

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  • Junichi DANJO, Sonoko DANJO, Yu NAKAMURA, Keiji UCHIDA, Hideyuki SAWAD ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Human-computer Interaction
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2759-2766
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases that cause high blood sugar due to functional problems with the pancreas or metabolism. Diabetic patients have few subjective symptoms and may experience decreased sensation without being aware of it. The commonly performed tests for sensory disorders are qualitative in nature. The authors pay attention to the decline of the sensitivity of tactile sensations, and develop a non-invasive method to detect the level of tactile sensation using a novel micro-vibration actuator that employs shape-memory alloy wires. Previously, we performed a pilot study that applied the device to 15 diabetic patients and confirmed a significant reduction in the tactile sensation in diabetic patients when compared to healthy subjects. In this study, we focus on the asymptomatic development of decreased sensation associated with diabetes mellitus. The objectives are to examine diabetic patients who are unaware of abnormal or decreased sensation using the quantitative tactile sensation measurement device and to determine whether tactile sensation is decreased in patients compared to healthy controls. The finger method is used to measure the Tactile Sensation Threshold (TST) score of the index and middle fingers using the new device and the following three procedures: TST-1, TST-4, and TST-8. TST scores ranged from 1 to 30 were compared between the two groups. The TST scores were significantly higher for the diabetic patients (P<0.05). The TST scores for the left fingers of diabetic patients and healthy controls were 5.9±6.2 and 2.7±2.9 for TST-1, 15.3±7.0 and 8.7±6.4 for TST-4, and 19.3±7.8 and 12.7±9.1 for TST-8. Our data suggest that the use of the new quantitative tactile sensation measurement device enables the detection of decreased tactile sensation in diabetic patients who are unaware of abnormal or decreased sensation compared to controls.

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  • Kazuhiro KOBAYASHI, Tomoki TODA, Tomoyasu NAKANO, Masataka GOTO, Satos ...
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Speech and Hearing
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2767-2777
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    As one of the techniques enabling individual singers to produce the varieties of voice timbre beyond their own physical constraints, a statistical voice timbre control technique based on the perceived age has been developed. In this technique, the perceived age of a singing voice, which is the age of the singer as perceived by the listener, is used as one of the intuitively understandable measures to describe voice characteristics of the singing voice. The use of statistical voice conversion (SVC) with a singer-dependent multiple-regression Gaussian mixture model (MR-GMM), which effectively models the voice timbre variations caused by a change of the perceived age, makes it possible for individual singers to manipulate the perceived ages of their own singing voices while retaining their own singer identities. However, there still remain several issues; e.g., 1) a controllable range of the perceived age is limited; 2) quality of the converted singing voice is significantly degraded compared to that of a natural singing voice; and 3) each singer needs to sing the same phrase set as sung by a reference singer to develop the singer-dependent MR-GMM. To address these issues, we propose the following three methods; 1) a method using gender-dependent modeling to expand the controllable range of the perceived age; 2) a method using direct waveform modification based on spectrum differential to improve quality of the converted singing voice; and 3) a rapid unsupervised adaptation method based on maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation to easily develop the singer-dependent MR-GMM. The experimental results show that the proposed methods achieve a wider controllable range of the perceived age, a significant quality improvement of the converted singing voice, and the development of the singer-dependnet MR-GMM using only a few arbitrary phrases as adaptation data.

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  • Chanho JUNG, Sanghyun JOO, Do-Won NAM, Wonjun KIM
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2778-2787
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this paper, we aim to investigate the potential usefulness of machine learning in image quality assessment (IQA). Most previous studies have focused on designing effective image quality metrics (IQMs), and significant advances have been made in the development of IQMs over the last decade. Here, our goal is to improve prediction outcomes of “any” given image quality metric. We call this the “IQM's Outcome Improvement” problem, in order to distinguish the proposed approach from the existing IQA approaches. We propose a method that focuses on the underlying IQM and improves its prediction results by using machine learning techniques. Extensive experiments have been conducted on three different publicly available image databases. Particularly, through both 1) in-database and 2) cross-database validations, the generality and technological feasibility (in real-world applications) of our machine-learning-based algorithm have been evaluated. Our results demonstrate that the proposed framework improves prediction outcomes of various existing commonly used IQMs (e.g., MSE, PSNR, SSIM-based IQMs, etc.) in terms of not only prediction accuracy, but also prediction monotonicity.

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  • Nga Hang DO, Keiji YANAI
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2788-2795
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this paper, we introduce a fully automatic approach to construct action datasets from noisy Web video search results. The idea is based on combining cluster structure analysis and density-based outlier detection. For a specific action concept, first, we download its Web top search videos and segment them into video shots. We then organize these shots into subsets using density-based hierarchy clustering. For each set, we rank its shots by their outlier degrees which are determined as their isolatedness with respect to their surroundings. Finally, we collect high ranked shots as training data for the action concept. We demonstrate that with action models trained by our data, we can obtain promising precision rates in the task of action classification while offering the advantage of fully automatic, scalable learning. Experiment results on UCF11, a challenging action dataset, show the effectiveness of our method.

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  • Kensho HARA, Takatsugu HIRAYAMA, Kenji MASE
    Type: PAPER
    Subject area: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2796-2808
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Hough-based voting approaches have been widely used to solve many detection problems such as object and action detection. These approaches for action detection cast votes for action classes and positions based on the local spatio-temporal features of given videos. The voting process of each local feature is performed independently of the other local features. This independence enables the method to be robust to occlusions because votes based on visible local features are not influenced by occluded local features. However, such independence makes discrimination of similar motions between different classes difficult and causes the method to cast many false votes. We propose a novel Hough-based action detection method to overcome the problem of false votes. The false votes do not occur randomly such that they depend on relevant action classes. We introduce vote distributions, which represent the number of votes for each action class. We assume that the distribution of false votes include important information necessary to improving action detection. These distributions are used to build a model that represents the characteristics of Hough voting that include false votes. The method estimates the likelihood using the model and reduces the influence of false votes. In experiments, we confirmed that the proposed method reduces false positive detection and improves action detection accuracy when using the IXMAS dataset and the UT-Interaction dataset.

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  • SeokJin IM, HeeJoung HWANG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Data Engineering, Web Information Systems
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2809-2813
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This letter proposes an Index based on Irregular Partition of data identifiers (IIP), to enable clients to quickly access multiple data items on a wireless broadcast channel. IIP improves the access time by reducing the index waiting time when clients access multiple data items, through the use of irregular partitioning of the identifier space of data items. Our performance evaluation shows that with respect to access time, the proposed IIP outperforms the existing index schemes supporting multiple data access.

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  • Jinwoo LEE, Jae Woo SEO, Kookrae CHO, Pil Joong LEE, Juneyeun KIM, Seu ...
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2814-2816
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The Android pattern unlock is a popular graphical password scheme, where a user is presented a 3×3 grid and required to draw a pattern on the onscreen grid. Each pattern is a sequence of at least four contact points with some restrictions. Theoretically, the security level of unlock patterns is determined by the size of the pattern space. However, the number of possible patterns is only known for 3×3 and 4×4 grids, which was computed by brute-force enumeration. The only mathematical formula for the number of possible patterns is a permutation-based upper bound. In this article, we present an improved upper bound by counting the number of “visible” points that can be directly reached by a point.

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  • Rui WANG, Qiaoyan WEN, Hua ZHANG, Sujuan QIN, Wenmin LI
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Information Network
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2817-2820
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Tor's hidden services provide both sender privacy and recipient privacy to users. A hot topic in security of Tor is how to deanonymize its hidden services. Existing works proved that the recipient privacy could be revealed, namely a hidden server's real IP address could be located. However, the hidden service's circuit is bi-directionally anonymous, and the sender privacy can also be revealed. In this letter, we propose a novel approach that can transparently discover the client of the hidden service. Based on extensive analysis on the hidden service protocol, we find a combination of cells which can be used to generate a special traffic feature with the cell-padding mechanism of Tor. A user can implement some onion routers in Tor networks and monitor traffic passing through them. Once the traffic feature is discovered, the user confirms one of the controlled routers is chosen as the entry router, and the adjacent node is the client. Compared with the existing works, our approach does not disturb the normal communication of the hidden service. Simulations have demonstrated the effectiveness of our method.

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  • Antoine BOSSARD, Keiichi KANEKO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Dependable Computing
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2821-2823
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Extending the very popular tori interconnection networks[1]-[3], Torus-Connected Cycles (TCC) have been proposed as a novel network topology for massively parallel systems [5]. Here, the set-to-set disjoint paths routing problem in a TCC is solved. In a TCC(k,n), it is proved that paths of lengths at most kn2+2n can be selected in O(kn2) time.

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  • Quan MIAO, Chenbo SHI, Long MENG, Guang CHENG
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Pattern Recognition
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2824-2827
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    This paper proposes an on-line rigid object tracking framework via discriminative object appearance modeling and learning. Strong classifiers are combined with 2D scale-rotation invariant local features to treat tracking as a keypoint matching problem. For on-line boosting, we correspond a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to each weak classifier and propose a GMM-based classifying mechanism. Meanwhile, self-organizing theory is applied to perform automatic clustering for sequential updating. Benefiting from the invariance of the SURF feature and the proposed on-line classifying technique, we can easily find reliable matching pairs and thus perform accurate and stable tracking. Experiments show that the proposed method achieves better performance than previously reported trackers.

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  • Chao LIANG, Wenming YANG, Fei ZHOU, Qingmin LIAO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Pattern Recognition
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2828-2831
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this letter, we propose a novel framework to estimate the joint distribution of multiple Local Binary Patterns (LBPs). Multiple LBPs extracted from the same central pixel are first encoded using handcrafted encoding schemes to achieve rotation invariance, and the outputs are further encoded through a pre-trained Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) to reduce the dimension of features. RBM has been successfully used as binary feature detectors and the binary-valued units of RBM seamlessly adapt to LBP. The proposed feature is called RBM-LBP. Experiments on the CUReT and Outex databases show that RBM-LBP is superior to conventional handcrafted encodings and more powerful in estimating the joint distribution of multiple LBPs.

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  • Chao XU, Dongxiang ZHOU, Yunhui LIU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Pattern Recognition
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2832-2835
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    The segmentation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis images forms the basis for the computer-aided diagnosis of tuberculosis. The segmented objects are often broken due to the low-contrast objects and the limits of segmentation method. This will result in decreasing the accuracy of segmentation and recognition. A simple and effective post-processing method is proposed to connect the broken objects. The broken objects in the segmented binary images are connected based on the information obtained from their skeletons. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed method.

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  • Xiantao JIANG, Tian SONG, Wen SHI, Takafumi KATAYAMA, Takashi SHIMAMOT ...
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image Processing and Video Processing
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2836-2839
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this work, a high efficiency coding unit (CU) size decision algorithm is proposed for high efficiency video coding (HEVC) inter coding. The CU splitting or non-splitting is modeled as a binary classification problem based on probability graphical model (PGM). This method incorporates two sub-methods: CU size termination decision and CU size skip decision. This method focuses on the trade-off between encoding efficiency and encoding complexity, and it has a good performance. Particularly in the high resolution application, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can reduce encoding time by 53.62%-57.54%, while the increased BD-rate are only 1.27%-1.65%, compared to the HEVC software model.

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  • Yundong LI, Jiyue ZHANG, Yubing LIN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Image Recognition, Computer Vision
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2840-2842
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this letter, we propose a novel discriminative representation for patterned fabric defect inspection when only limited negative samples are available. Fisher criterion is introduced into the loss function of deep learning, which can guide the learning direction of deep networks and make the extracted features more discriminating. A deep neural network constructed from the encoder part of trained autoencoders is utilized to classify each pixel in the images into defective or defectless categories, using as context a patch centered on the pixel. Sequentially the confidence map is processed by median filtering and binary thresholding, and then the defect areas are located. Experimental results demonstrate that our method achieves state-of-the-art performance on the benchmark fabric images.

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  • Zhenxin YANG, Miao LI, Lei CHEN, Kai SUN
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Natural Language Processing
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2843-2846
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    In this paper, a morpheme-based weighting and its integration method are proposed as a smoothing method to alleviate the data sparseness in Chinese-Mongolian statistical machine translation (SMT). Besides, we present source-side reordering as the pre-processing model to verify the extensibility of our method. Experi-mental results show that the morpheme-based weighting can substantially improve the translation quality.

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  • Chao XU, Dongxiang ZHOU, Keju PENG, Weihong FAN, Yunhui LIU
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Biological Engineering
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2847-2850
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    There are often low contrast Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) objects in the MTB images. Based on improved histogram equalization (HE), a framework of contrast enhancement is proposed to increase the contrast of MTB images. Our proposed algorithm was compared with the traditional HE and the weighted thresholded HE. The experimental results demonstrate that our proposed algorithm has better performance in contrast enhancement, artifacts suppression, and brightness preserving for MTB images.

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  • Eisuke ITO, Yusuke TOMARU, Akira IIZUKA, Hirokazu HIRAI, Tsuyoshi KATO
    Type: LETTER
    Subject area: Biological Engineering
    2016 Volume E99.D Issue 11 Pages 2851-2855
    Published: November 01, 2016
    Released: November 01, 2016
    JOURNALS FREE ACCESS

    Automatic detection of immunoreactive areas in fluorescence microscopic images is becoming a key technique in the field of biology including neuroscience, although it is still challenging because of several reasons such as low signal-to-noise ratio and contrast variation within an image. In this study, we developed a new algorithm that exhaustively detects co-localized areas in multi-channel fluorescence images, where shapes of target objects may differ among channels. Different adaptive binarization thresholds for different local regions in different channels are introduced and the condition of each segment is assessed to recognize the target objects. The proposed method was applied to detect immunoreactive spots that labeled membrane receptors on dendritic spines of mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells. Our method achieved the best detection performance over five pre-existing methods.

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