The concept of “peace” starts from the deﬁnition “a condition of no war,” which gradually changes. It has, for example, broadened to “a condition of no violence.” Therefore the chosen purposes of this study were: (1) first, survey the changes in the conventional concept of peace, (2) explore the effectiveness for peace of “spiritual peace,” a comparatively new and somewhat vague concept that is among those changes and (3) define the “spirituality” that is useful for peace, and then examine and deﬁne the concept of “holistic spiritual peace” as a new peace objective based on the deﬁnition of spirituality. As a result, “holistic spiritual peace”
was defined as “a great something which focuses on social states and processes (including interpersonal relations, groups, organizations, communities, nation-states, ethnic peoples, and the environment) that are created by four qualities and forces residing in all things, and which are possessed by spirituality ( “diversity,” which produces diverse and irreplaceable things,  “transcendence,” which crosses various boundaries,  “oneness,” which crosses boundaries and links things into one, and  “harmony,” which steers them in a desirable direction).”
The objective of this paper is to consider the nature of spiritual care. Attention will be given to “music-thanatology”
which has been recognized as a modality of palliative and end-of-life care in the U.S. Music-thanatology addresses the physical, emotional and spiritual needs of the dying and their loved ones through live prescriptive music, using harp and voice at the bedside. Initially, characteristics of musicthanatology will be examined. The function of sound/music and its meaning for spiritual care will then be clarified through analysis of a “harp visit,” an applied method of music-thanatology practiced by the author in Japan. Finally, in light of the spiritual significance of a harp visit, consideration will be given to ﬁve aspects of spiritual care: the offering of a context for the discernment and completion of one＇s soul work, the offering of the opportunity and space to be present with another, the cultivation of a contemplative spirit, the connection with community, and a return to the original nature of caregiving⊖with the goal of reuniting (harmonizing) the soul both internally with the self and externally with the outer world.
In this research, first, the review of a brief overview about Amazon neo shamanism and its psychological / psychiatric preceding research. Second, conducted a case study about the internal psychological process of the neo shamanism using phenomenological approach and further examined with perspective of early Buddhism approach. As a result, this case
study revealed that the Amazon neo shamanism ceremony can achieve experiences such as an intensive catharsis experience of depth mind, a self awareness of the evil deed, confessions from the heart, the process of death and rebirth, an experience to another world as Gaki-kai (Hungry ghost dimension, an extreme level of hunger and thirst) and Tosotsuten (one of the six deva-worlds)(Peta, Tusita), an awakening to the Law (Dhamma) of action and result (Kamma-Vipāka), profound realization of dependent origination (Paṭiccasamuppāda) and no self (Anatta), encountering admirable spiritual friends (Kalyāṇa-mitta) living in multi-dimensional worlds including shamans, other members of the ceremony, goddess, the spiritual bird, fairies and a whole jungle, and an appreciation to the sense of unity. Considering the case report above and from numbers of preceding studies, I conclude that the Amazon neo shamanism is a valuable tradition which has extremely strong psychotheraputic effects and rich effects to spiritual growth, if an appropriate religious setting is regulated for whom their heart is well prepared.
The purpose of this study was to create a spirituality rating scale for the youth of Japan. A questionnaire was developed based on the “Concept of Spirituality” and was filled in by 271 university students. After excluding statistically inappropriate items, a factor analysis (Maximum Likelihood Estimation with Promax Rotation) was conducted. As a result, ﬁve factors for twenty-seven items were obtained. These ﬁve factors were termed as follows: Harmonizing with Nature, Ikigai (Japanese word for one＇s sense of purpose in life), A Feeling of Awe Regarding Invisible Existence, Connecting with One＇s Ancestors and finally Self-determination. The questionnaire consisting of ﬁve categories with their twentyseven items was defined as the Japanese Youth Spirituality Rating Scale (JYS). The cumulative contribution percentage after extracting the factors was 53.03％ . The reliability coefﬁcient of the JYS obtained after applying the Cronbach's alpha was 0.89. The construct validity of the scale was conﬁrmed by using the Comparative Fit Index (CFI=0.91), the Goodness of Fit Index (GFI=0.86), the Adjusted Goodnessof-Fit Index (AGFI=0.83) and Root Mean Squares Error of Approximation (RMSEA=0.061). The criterion-related validity of the scale was confirmed by the correlation coefficients with STS( r =0.69 p＜.01), and PIL( r =0.55 p＜0.001). In addition, a relation of the JYS to the Scale of Life and Death View was also shown. Through these overall ﬁndings, it was found that the JYS could be a useful scale to measure the spiritual tendency of Japanese youth.
Existing research, mainly conducted in the United States and Europe, shows that near-death experience can exert various aftereffects on near-death experiencers. This article examines the whole process of rehabilitation from neardeath experience experienced by near-death experiencers in Japan. Data was collected through qualitative interviews with nineteen informants who have near-death experience and analyzed by a modified grounded theory approach. Analysis reveals that rehabilitation is a process of adaptation and harmonious reduction of outcome from near-death experiences to the everyday life. Informants reflected such an extraordinary experience, giving new meaning to this experience, and some of them began new activities. Findings overlap with those of American studies and suggest the possibility that there may be a universal pattern of near-death experience to some extent.