Identification of anthocyanins and a simple method for their content measurment in bentgrass were established in this experiment. 1) Two anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-malonylglucoside were identified in the leaves of bentgrass by chromatography with authentic anthocyanins. 2) The most suitable solvent for extraction of anthocyanin was 3% aqueous HCL. 3) A simple method for anthocyanin content measurment in bentgrass was established as follows: After homogenizing of leaf sample (0.2 g FW) with 20 ml of 3% aqueous HCL, the sample is kept for 24 hours under dark conditions. After filtration with paper, the sample solution is diluted volumetrically to appropriate concentration and the absorbance of extraction is measured at 530 nm. 4) Seasonal change in anthocyanin content of the anthocyanin accumulative strain was low from spring to summer and high from late autumn to winter. While, that of the non-accumulative strain was low in winter season and almost same level from spring to early autumn of the accumulative strain.
In this paper, several experiments were carried out to explore the climatic factors and eco-physiological mechanism related to anthocyanin pigmentation of bentgrass lawn in winter. 1) Shade experiment for analyzing climatic factors on anthocyanin pigmentation was made under the various light and ultraviolet radiation (UVR) conditions with different shading materials. The experiment was made on both turfs of anthocyanin accumulative and non-accumulative strains in winter from Dec. of 1998 to Mar. of 1999. There was high correlation between UVR transmittance and amount of anthocyanin in the leaves, however, there was no significant correlation with light intensity and anthocyanin. This shows that anthocyanin pigmentation is induced by UVR under low air temperature. The same result was obtained in three replicated pot experiment conducted under field condition with four levels of UVR transmittance by shading materials in winter from Dec. of 1999 to Feb. of 2000. 2) Photosyntheses of lawn leaves in different anthocyanin color spot were measured. There was high negative correlation between anthocyanin contents and photosynthetic rate. 3) To make clear the cause of the result above, absorption rate of light and UVR in anthocyanin extracted from the leaf were measured. The anthocyanin extract absorbed light and UVR strongly. These results show that decrease of photosynthetic rate in anthocyanin colour leaves depends on high absorption of solar radiation by anthocyanin in leaves. At the same time, this result suggests that anthocyanin which exists in epidermal tissue will protect mesophyll tissues from the injury of UVR. 4) The temperature of solution extracted from different anthocyanin color leaf rised pararelly to anthocyanin content by sun radiation. This suggests that anthocyanin in turf leaves contributes to increase of leaf temperature in winter. 5) Light absorption spectra in both extracts of chlorophyll and anthocyanin obtained from both pot culture plants grown under field (low temperature) and green house (normal growth temperature) in winter were measured at wide wavelength. All absorption spectra in chlorophyll extract were the same. While, those of anthocyanin extract differed by pigment content. That is, in extract with high anthocyanin, absorption spectrum was high value at wide wavelength and had a maximum peak at 500 nm compaired to low anthocyanin extract. These results coincided with the function of absorbance of light radiation and increase in extract temperature of the anthocyanin accumulative strain. 6) These results indicate that anthocyanin has functions of ① protection from UVR injury, ② cutting photosynthetic radiation and ③ rising leaf temperature. These functions in anthocyanin accumulative strain were higher than those of non-accumulative strain under the same solar radiation in winter. It was suggested from above mentioned results that anthocyanin pigmentation of bentgrass turf in winter is a mechanism for eco-physiological adaptation to maintain the balance of production and consumption of photochemical products under low air temperature.
In order to explain the various reproductive modes of annual bluegrass (Poa annua L.), regeneration from the panicles and the flag leaf nodes at the booting stage (BS), emerging stage (ES), flowering stage (FS) and ripening stage (RS) were evaluated for the putting green and the orchard populations. The results obtained from the present study were summarized as follows: In putting green populations, regeneration rate (the number of panicles in which at least one plant is generated/100 panicles×100 (%)) at FS and RS were high as much as more than 90%, but were very low at BS (2%) and ES (3%). In orchard populations, the regeneration rate was high at FS (78%) and RS (77%) as well as putting green populations, however, no plants were regenerated at BS and ES. On the other hand, regeneration from the flag leaf nodes were observed at only BS (1 plant with shoot and root) and ES (3 plants with root). These results suggest that 1) the seeds of both putting green and orchard populations exhibit early maturating characteristics and are not in dormancy as long as seeds attach to a panicle, 2) root and/or shoot were emerged from the flag leaf node at BS and/or ES with very low frequency, and 3) annual bluegrass is a gamethophytic apomixsis although it is unclear whether this characteristic is peculia to the putting green populations.
Soils of golf course greens widely sampled in Japan and USA were analyzed by the same methods and laboratory. Their average values were compared with each other (n=869 in Japan, 2008–2010 and n=6,493 in USA, 2006). The exchangeable PO4-P of Japan was 113.8 ppm, 1.7 times higher than that of USA. The exchangeable K of Japan was 103.3 ppm, close to that of USA. On the contrary, Ca, Mg, and S of Japan were 0.54, 0.66, and 0.35 times lower, respectively, than those of USA. Water extractable these macronutrients of Japan were all 0.3–0.6 times lower than those of USA. Moreover, about 95% of the exchangeable P data were higher than the medium range of SLAN (sufficiency level of available nutrients). Other exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and S, 50–80% of all data were inversely lower than the SLAN range. These results suggest, in Japan, P application to the greens run excessive contrarily, K, Ca, Mg, and S insufficient.
Many of urban people are spending architectural space about 80∼90% of the residence and starting work, and securing health of the space is an important theme. In this study, the effect of the stress relaxation in indoor space by mini pot plants was verified. The respondent to a survey was a participant, and it stayed in the classroom with the coexistence feeling. And the stress situations of each stage were compared by ① setting of the plant is not arranged, ② forward with plant arrangement, ③ plant arrangement by each tables. POMS was diagnosed as a psychology index. The saliva amylase was inspected as a physiology index. It did excellently to the impression of the space the existence of the plant, and a positive evaluation was obtained according to the SD investigation. The arrangement of the plant has eased the stress according to the POMS diagnosis. Especially, the psychological effect when the plant was put on the table was large, and the attachment feeling to the plant was admitted.
To decontaminate the radioactive substance from the lawn, we measured the value of radiation dose of turfgrass and ground in a house yard at Fukushima city, Fukushima pref. The thatch especially showed high value of radiation dose, suggesting radioactive substance abundantly adsorbs to the thatch. On the other hand, soil under the thatch was at low dose level. By removing the thatch, surface contamination value drastically decreased to about 93%. After four weeks, the turf grew new shoots well and covered all area. At some contaminated playgrounds, turf grass was removed with surface soil for clean up, however, our method appeared useful for reducing radioactive substance and turf recovery.
The plant used for paste side tree planting of a broad sense from ancient times to modern times was investigated and summarized from related literature. The result is as follows. A possibility that grass was used for the Tsuchibuki dwelling was found. The same possibility also as the tumulus portion of an ancient tomb was found. Madake and Hochiku were used for shore protection and flood damage defense of a pond. Medake, Kumazasa, etc. were used for shore protection of the river. Noshiba and Kouraishiba were used for Dorui of a fortress. Shibanae had begun production from the middle of the Edo period. The true character of Ophiopogon Tuber was Janohige. Wild grass, such as a foxtail, Jishibari, wild rice, and Gama, was used for shore protection of a river.