Transactions of the Virtual Reality Society of Japan
Online ISSN : 2423-9593
Print ISSN : 1344-011X
ISSN-L : 1344-011X
Volume 5 , Issue 3
Showing 1-24 articles out of 24 articles from the selected issue
  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages Cover1-
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages Toc1-
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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  • Type: Index
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages Toc2-
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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  • Yoshio Yamasaki
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 909-
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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  • Hae-Young Kim, Yoiti Suzuki, Shouichi Takane, Toshio Sone
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 911-918
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    This study aims at establishing a digital signal processing technique for controlling 3-D sound localization, especially focusing on the role of information provided by Head-Related Transfer Function (HRTF) in the distance perception. In order to clarify the cues to control the auditory distance perception, two conventional models called Hirsch-Tahara model and the auditory parallax model were examined. As a result, it was shown that both models have limitations in controlling the auditory distance perception generally. Hence, in this paper, the auditory parallax model was extended to be applicable to broader cases of auditory distance perception. This model is called the extended auditory parallax model. A psychoacoustical experiment was performed by simulating HRTF's based on this model. The results of the experiment showed that the cues provided by the new model were almost sufficient to control the perception of auditory distance from an actual sound source located within about 2 m for any azimuthal direction.
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  • Yasuhiro Oikawa, Sadayuki Baba, Yoshio Yamasaki
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 919-926
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    The sound field reproduction has been studied by many people. Dr. Itow suggested the stereophonies and an analyze the two channels system. We extend this theory and suggest the sound field control and reproduction method by wave front synthesis considering human hearing sense. We explain the stereophonies system and multi speakerphones system. Then we simulate this system and make sure of its effect. We are able to construct the virtual reality system, which has a realizable number of speakerphones.
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  • Sadayuki Baba, Manabu Fukushima, Hirofumi Yanagawa
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 927-934
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    To know how sounds from several moving sound sources were perceived, we investigated a discrimination of sound images' localization of nearby moving sound sources made of two modulated noises. We examined the difference of localization by a moving direction such as clockwise and counter clockwise. Sound images were moved around the listener onto the front half-perimeter by using 8 loudspeakers. As a result, when noises were incoherent, difference limens to separate sound images were in a range between 3.6 degrees and 27.0 degrees. The overlap of power spectra of two noises hardly affected the difference limen. However when noises were coherent and power spectra of noises were identical, difference limens were approximately 9 degrees larger th an that of incoherent one. A difference of the difference limen between clockwise and counterclockwise was maximally ll.7 degrees.
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  • Ryouichi Nishimura, Tsutomu Miyasato, Ryohei Nakatsu
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 935-941
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    A sound perceived by a person varies in its characteristics as an object nearby the person's head changes its position in a sound field. This phenomenon helps us to determine the motion of such object. Hence, reconstruction of this phenomenon could emphasize the reality of an object in a virtual world whichever the object is in or out of the visual field. This paper consists of two parts. The first part is dedicated to developing a technique to reconstruct this phenomenon with low computational cost using the Karhunen-Loeve expansion for real time applications. The second part is dedicated to investigating the effects of this technique by means of two experiments. The results of the experiments show that the proposed technique is effective for people to be able to distinguish the motion of an object in the virtual world.
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  • Yuichi Tamura, Tetsuya Sato, Akira Kageyama, Susumu Fujiwara, Hiroaki ...
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 943-948
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    One of the most practical objectives to use the virtual reality system in science is to make it easy to intuitively percept complex physical phenomena. We developed a virtual reality system, called CompleXcope, which can represent "real" 3D visual environment. Since attractive physical phenomena are often so complex and tangled, the virtual reality system with 3D-sound functions is really useful for the quick comprehension of phenomena. We have recently added a sound function to the CompleXcope. In this paper we present examples produced by this aural-visual virtual reality system "CompleXcope".
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  • Kenji OZAWA, Eiji KANAZAWA, Yoiti SUZUKI
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 949-956
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    When sounds are recorded with microphones placed at the ears ofa dummy head to be reproduced to the ears of a listener with headphones, correct binauralreproduction cannot be made because the acoustical characteristics of the outer ears are convoluted redundantly. To overcome this problem, calibration using a dummy head is usually conducted. This calibration is not enough since individual differences in the acoustical characteristics of listeners are ignored. In this paper, individual calibration in which calibration is applied considering the acoustic characteristics of the actual listener is proposed. Experimental results show that the effect of the individual calibration is significantly better than the usual method.binaural reproduction
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  • Atsunobu Kaminunma, Shiro Ise, Kiyohiro Shikano
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 957-964
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    To realize a robust sound-reproduction system against head movement, multi-channel sound field reproduction systems are one of the most promising methods, which can make the same acoustic field as the recording area by controlling several points. However, these sound field reproduction systems have not been applied to the realization of the acoustic field, because of the insufficient knowledge of the multiple channel system's behavior. In this paper, we first investigate the accuracy of the reproduced sound by the multi-channel sound reproduction system. In particular we investigate the loudspeaker arrangement and the number of controlled points by the computer simulation. We also construct a multi-channel sound field reproduction system which can reproduce the sound within the wide area around the listener's head. As the results of our investigation, good sound localization is realized by arranging loudspeakers around the control points.
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  • Hiroyuki Okubo, Masamichi Otani, Kazuho Ono, Ken-ichiro Masaoka, Ryo I ...
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 965-973
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    A new three-dimensional audio reproduction system is developed. This system reproduces virtual sound environment simulating the sound field of virtual spaces. The reproduced sound synchronizes with the CG pictures of virtual spaces rendered by VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) scripts. This system controls the directions of direct sounds corresponding to the coordinates of sound sources and the listening point in the virtual spaces and adds reverberation simulated with the room shapes and wall materials of the virtual spaces.
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  • Ayumu Akabane, Tetsuro Hatano, Yukihiro Hirata, Tetsuya Harada, Makoto ...
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 975-980
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    In this paper, we presented various sensory cues to subjects in virtual workspace and evaluated the effects of sensory cues on work efficiency quantitatively. We used visual and 3-D auditory cues in this experiment. The task was that the subjects pushed one of the blocks specified by sensory cues. The presence of the visual cue had large effects and auditory cue had less effects. But in the case with 3-D auditory and visual cues, the standard deviations of the working time and the failure were smaller than any other case.
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  • Ken-ichiro Yamamoto, Takeshi Naemura, Hiroshi Harashima
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 981-987
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    This paper indicates that a loudspeaker system is more applicable than a headphone system for the Mixed Reality applications. It is, however, not so easy to construct the loudspeaker system which can localize sound images interactively, while the listening position is not fixed. In order to clarify a simple and effective method for this purpose, the authors construct and compare four systems, which utilize binaural, transaural processing and electromagnetic sensors. Experimental results show that not the direction but the position of listener's ear is essential for the transaural processing.
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  • Yoshikazu Seki, Norio Nakamura
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 989-995
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    Obstacle sense is an experience-based ability to detect objects that generate no sound without using visual sense but using auditory sense. Detailing of the obstacle sense mechanism clearly is important in constructing systematic training to master this ability through education and rehabilitation of the blind, and the mechanism also can be applied to the acoustical VR technology that can presents the "silent objects" (eg., wall, pillar of building) virtually by "sound." This report covers psychological factors of obstacle sense to an infinite wall in a sound field consisting of plural circumstance noise. We assumed a sound field model having plural pairs of direct and reflected sounds. Three experiments were done: the first, a preliminary one, determined conditions of wall distance; the second examined sound image variation caused by the wall; and the third examined timbre variation caused by the wall. Results suggest that sound image variation caused by precedence effect is mainly psychological factor to detect an object at the side; timbre variation caused by coloration is mainly psychological factor to detect an object in front.
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  • Hiroaki Yano, Toshihiro Kameda, Koichi Mizutani, Hiroo Iwata
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 997-1003
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    Currently most of virtual reality system with auditory feedback can produce good feel of presence to the users. In VR (Virtual Reality) environment, interactions with virtual objects are common events. Some systems provide sounds generated by interactions between virtual objects, although they are generated using modulation technique of prerecorded sounds. There is a limitation in that method. We should consider the sound generation method based on physical models. In this paper, we propose a method of synthesis haptic and auditory senses that is based on physical model. We have developed an auditory environment with haptic sensation. We equipped a speaker at the end eifecter of the HapticMaster. The FEM (Finite Element Method) is used to calculate the vibration of the virtual object. And the sound pressure data at the speaker position are calculated based on the vibration in real time. The effectiveness of our method is tested through the experiments by users.
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  • Takuro Kayahara, Takao Sato
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 1005-1011
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    In this study, we investigated whether the preceding sound or light point (cue stimulus) biases perceived directions of moving sound (target stimulus) to evaluate the effect of cross-modal attention on the spatial information processing in the human auditory system. First, a narrow band noise, as an auditory cue, was presented in various cue-lead time and at various place (auditory cue experiment). Thejudgment of the target-motion direction was biased when a cue was presented in the opposite direction to that of a target motion and in shorter cue-lead time. The effect of the distance between a cue and a target was not significant. Next, a light point emitted form LED, as a visual cue, was presented in various cue-lead time and at various place (visual cue experiment). Thejudgment of the target-motion direction was biased when a cue was presented in the opposite direction to that of a target motion. The effect of cue-lead time and distance between a cue and a target was not significant. These results suggest that modality-nonspecific attention might affect on spatial-information processing (judgment of movement direction) in the human auditory system.
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  • Hiroyuki Nara, Shuichi Ino, Yoshinari Onda, Tohru Ifukube
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 1013-1018
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    The sense of equilibrium is produced by an integration of various senses. Therefore, the auditory sense may be also related to the sense of equilibrium in the same way as the visual sense. We hypothesized that sound stimulation might influence the sense of equilibrium the same as visual stimulation. Then, We studied the influence of sound stimulation on the sense of equilibrium. From the experimental results, it was found that the vection and the body sway for the subjects was affected by sound stimulation. This findings suggests how sound stimulation should be displayed to control the body sway in the case of virtual reality environment.
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  • Shunsuke Yoshida, Shin-ya Miyazaki, Toshihito Hoshino, Toru Ozeki, Jun ...
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 1019-1025
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    This paper proposes a technique which high-precisely corrects errors of depth perception in a stereoscopic display. In spite of using identical values of correction parameters such as interpupillary distance, high-precise correction can be realized at an arbitrary presented depth. The eyepoints and the screen position in stereo pair image generation are adopted as correction parameters based on the spatial distribution of depth errors measured using large plane screen of which the distortion of the display sufficiently corrected and optical sensor in which the measurement error is small. Procedures of obtaining optimum values of correction parameters from sample distribution of depth errors and propriety of the method are described.
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  • Hideaki Tsuge, Toshio Fukuda, Fumihito Arai, Akio Inaba, Yoshinori Niw ...
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 1027-1032
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    Tele-manipulation system is used in many fields where we can't operate directly. Recently, virtual reality is focused as a method for improvement of manipulability in telemanipulation system. In previous research, simulation in virtual space overcame problems caused by communication time delay and virtual guide were proposed in order to assist operations. However, relationship between viewpoint and a coordinate of operation has not been discussed, although virtual reality enable us to select arbitrary viewpoint. In our research, we propose a new model in which the coordinate of operation is defined by viewpoint in order to improve manipulability of tele-manipulation and perform an experiment in order to evaluate manipulability of proposed model.
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  • Shintaro Kawahara, Tatsuhiro Yonekura, Makoto Shimojyo, Yoshiki Kishi
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 1033-1039
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    In this paper, we proposed a new method of evaluating quantitative the influence to the depth perception was influenced by the contradiction between convergence and accommodation in stereoscopic displays.We suppose empirical application of stereoscopic displays, verify about influences when we catch the ball in the virtual world. To be concrete, we used stereoscopic display with accommodative compensation, and proposed a new method of evaluating quantitative the influence to the depth perception was influenced by the contradiction between convergence and accommodation in stereoscopic displays, from results of tasks supposed to catch the ball in the virtual world. We also conducted a subjective experiment, and report its results.
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  • Fujio Kaneko, Yoshinori Ikemoto
    Type: Article
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 1041-1048
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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    A lot of passengers were died in ship disasters, such as Titanic, recently Scandinavian-Star, and Estonia. In order to enable safe evacuation from the ship in casualty, it is important to lead evacuees effectively and to design ship so that safe evacuation can be possible. For this purpose it is necessary to understand human behavior in case of emergency. To investigate human behavior the experiments with human subjects under real condition are preferable. However it is too dangerous to do so. Therefore instead of real-sized experiments, we decide to develop and use the simulator using VR technique. In this paper, how to model the evacuees decision and behavior is introduced, and the model obtained by the experiments outline of which are explained briefly in this paper.
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  • Type: Appendix
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages 1049-
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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  • Type: Cover
    2000 Volume 5 Issue 3 Pages Cover2-
    Published: September 30, 2000
    Released: February 01, 2017
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