Recently “Co-housing” is being accepted in Northern European countries, which have the higher percentage of elderly for a long time. The characteristics of the “Co-housing” is equipped with space for individual and with common room. In this report, we aimed to make these as a basis in supplying new type of housing with elderly people in the future. The results obtained by the analysis of the surveys in 3 cases of this kind in Norway were as follows:(1) Most of the residents are in their 70's and 80's, but they are rather healthy.(2) At the common house, they have meetings and eat together regularly. And also some people use it for party etc.(3) Some of the biggest merits are “no feeling of loneliness”, “co-operation with one another”, “feel safety than living alone”.(4) On demerits, many of them answered “nothing”. But some people think “because of the different health condition, only a part of the residents owing much responsibility”.(5) All of the residents who answered the questionnaire estimated their “Co-housing”, “very good” or “good”.
The dispersed family units are related to each other in order to fulfill an original functions of family and dwelling. Here we have an idea of Network Residence to be used in actual conditions of metropolitan region. Results are summarized as follows. 1) The dispersion of family spread widely in metropolitan region. The idea of the “family” goes beyond spreading to all the family branches living in many different places. 2) They fulfill their dwelling needs by dynamic use of the several residences. 3) This residential system changes meanings and roles of usual houses. It causes reorganization of housing functions.
In Taipei, Taiwan, the mixing of residential and commercial use within the same apartment building is very popular. It brings advantages such as reducing commuting time, brings more vitality to the city, but also brings such disadvantages as a deterioration in the quality of the living environment. In this paper, in order to make clear the mechanism for creating orderly mixed-use apartments, we analyze how architects and developers take steps to create typical mixed-use apartment projects in Taipei. The results are as follows: 1) profitable business opportunities in meeting the needs of self-employed persons result in the creation of small mixed-use units of dwelling/business and dwelling/commerce; 2) the commercial units are almost always vertically separated from dwelling units and business units; 3) by separating building function types into commerce/business/dwelling and commerce/dwelling or business/dwelling, one may anticipate type of building useand corresponding vertical separation in appropriate function zones and control accordingly; 4) communal management is necessary for small commercial units and small business units in condominium ownership.
In this paper, we analyze the effects of the present Japanese Land and Housing Lease Law, and its effects after the proposed revision. The bargaining power of the landlord is reduced by the present law, while the bargaining power of the tenant will be reduced by the revision of the law. Thus this law causes the hold-up problem of the landlord and the revision will result in the hold-up problem of the tenant. In our model, we prove that the existing law leads to a lower diverting use of land and a lower supply of housing and land for rental than the socially optimal level. Unlikely usual argument, this lower diverting use of the land occurs even if the negotiation cost is zero, and this is caused by the excess investment of the tenant. On the contrary, a greater diverting use of the land will occur if the law is revised. This problem, however, is less serious than that of the present law because landlord can make commitment to the tenant that they will not exercise their higher bargaining power.
The purpose of this study is to develop housing prototype relevant to the ordinary residential city block inciting the respective renewals of housing. It is presumed that the housing prototype improves the living condition without any change of the existing land ownership. The study consists of the following procedure, which is to set, simulate and evaluate housing prototype as a hypothesis and to propose the prototype as a realizable model. Three urban unit prototypes;“Self-defense model”, “Alley model”, and “Court Yard model” are set as the hypothesises. Each prototype is simulated to the housing site in a selected site block in a built-up residential area. As a result of simulation, enough possibility are found.“Self-defense model” supplies living amenity limited to a single site.“Alley model” creates an openspace like a network of alley in the city block.“Court Yard model” creates a court yard in the city block. According to housing specialist's evaluation, it is indicated that each model had enough possibility as the promising renewal model. Reasoning from specialist's suggestions, finally a variety of ideal architectural image of urban housing units are developed. To realize the these models, the central and local governments support systems are needed. The utilization and maintenance system of alley and court yard openspace are also important.
Less than two years were over since the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. There is much regional difference between the advances of housing rehabilitation. Rehabilitation of detached houses is much smoother than that of old wooden houses and row houses. This paper aims to make clear the process of housing rehabilitation and dwelling reconstruction after the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake. The sufferers have a great variety of the processes, and the houses of friends and relatives played an important part in housing rehabilitation. We found out that it is important for housing policy not only to rehabilitate stricken houses but also to reconstruct living of the sufferers in their own town.