In this study, we analyzed the escape distances (EDs; measured as the distance at which birds flush) of five bird species—Japanese Tit Parus minor, Eurasian Tree Sparrow Passer montanus, White-cheeked Starling Spodiopsar cineraceus, Brown-eared Bulbul Hypsipetes amaurotis, and Rock Dove Columba livia —when exposed to a walking person holding binoculars in an urban park. Escape distances varied among species, with the larger species being more tolerant of human disturbance than the smaller species. Rock Doves flushed at a shorter distance and showed a greater tolerance to approaching pedestrians. When birds were exposed to walkers carrying binoculars, there was an increase in ED, and, unexpectedly, the generally tolerant Rock Doves showed the highest increase in flush reaction. It is suggested that almost all the bird species examined in this study have the ability to discriminate between people walking toward them with binoculars and those walking empty-handed.
The erythraeid mite, Balaustium murorum, crawls on house walls, gardens and rooftops of office buildings in Tokyo from spring to early summer. The mite causes the residents discomfort. In order to know the effective methods for controlling the mite, we researched its oviposition sites on the rooftop and ground. A large number of eggs were collected from the gap between the protecting wall and concrete floor of the building roof. Many eggs were also collected from narrow and deep cracks of old concrete walls on the ground. The eggs were laid in the cracks in groups. It seemed that the gaps and cracks of the walls were main oviposition sites for the mite.