The Chinese vernacular names of Chenopodium album in broad sense were surveyed in 64 ancient documents prior to the Qing Dynasty which were a record of its history of cultural recognition. The species had been recognized as weeds (not harmful) or natural and cultural resources as diet, vegetables, ash, and as a walking stick, for a long time in China. Seven Chinese letters had referred to the species up until the Three Kingdoms period, and several names referred to it also by combining the form of two or three characters. This was recorded during the Tang and Song Dynasties. In spite of its increase in its expression of diversity, there were two word-lineages, 藜Li and 灰藋 Hui-tiao (or 灰條, 灰菜), during the Min Dynasty; one integrated group as 藜Li or 灰藋 Hui-tiao was recognized during the late Qing Dynasty. Eighty percentage of the examined Chinese ancient literature mentioned the species in the context of household goods. Vegetable use accounted for 71% of the references followed by walking stick-use which accounted for 59%.
To better understand which herbicides were best suited for controlling weeds in Dwarf cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv. ‘Hajime’) field, their safeties to Dwarf Cogongrass and herbicidal activities against a variety of weeds were investigated using pot and field test. The results of pot test in a greenhouse showed that of 18 herbicides tested, six could be used with Dwarf cogongrass; three were effective pre-emergence herbicides (S-metolachlor, pyroxasulfone, triaziflam) and three were effective post-emergence herbicides (harosulfuron-methyl, atrazine, triclopyr). The findings obtained from field test showed that the two sequential applications, S-metolachlor/harosulfuron-methyl and S-metolachlor/atrazine, are effective for control weeds without damaging Dwarf cogongrass when S-metolachlor was applied as a pre-emergence herbicide at a rate of 300 g a.i./10 a, followed by harosulfuron-methyl as a post-emergence herbicide at a rate of 100 g a.i./10 a and/or atrazine as a post-emergence herbicide at a rate of 300 g a.i./10 a.
In order to select ground cover plants with effective weed management abilities, field experiments with seven perennial plants including Thymus serpyllum, Phlox subulata, Phyla nodiflora, Lampranthus spectabilis, Ophiopogon japonicus, Mentha pulegium and Liriope muscari were conducted to evaluate their weed suppression for five-years. Cover degree, multiple dominance ratio (MDR), dry weight of weeds, and the number of weeds at each plots were evaluated. L. muscari showed most practical weed suppression from second year to fifth year. L. muscari had strong allelopathic activity by bioassays. This Japanese domestic ground cover plant contained azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, a non-proteinogenic amino acid analogues to proline, at high concentration in root and leaves, and supposed to have a role as allelochemical to suppress weed on the field.