A new bitter principle, centauroside was obtained from the whole plant of Erythraea centaurium (LINNE) PERSOON. with two glucosides. On the basis of chemical and spectral evidence, the structure of centauroside was confirmed to be a novel bis-secoiridoidal structure (III), and the others were established to be 6'-(m-hydroxybenzoyl) loganin, and secologanin dimethyl acetal arising from secologanin during the extraction process.
The methanol extract of the male flowers of Cucurbita pepo was shown to contain glutinol, lupeol, α-spinasterol, stigmast-7-enol, α-spinasteryl-β-D-glucoside, stigmast-7-enyl-β-D-glucoside, adenine, adenosine, eleven fatty acids and twenty-three amino acids. Four paraffins were also identified with gas chromatography-mass spectrum from the essential oil. And sex differentiation of the constituents of male and female flowers was studied.
The time courses of concentrations of D-penicillamine (PA) and its metabolites (PA disulfide (PSSP), PA-cysteine (PSSC), S-methyl PA (MeSP)) in the blood and urine of rat, dog, and man were determined by using a high performence liquid chromatography with a voltammetric detector (LC-VMD), and an amino acid analyser. The blood level of PA became highest 2 h after the oral administration of PA, and the main metabolite was PSSC in all animals. Biological half-lives (T1/2) of PA were 0.83 h (rat), 0.71 h (dog), 1.13 h (men). The main metabolites in the urine were PSSC, PSSC in dog, and PSSC in men.
Proton magnetic resonance spectra of ortho-bromoaniline in various solvents were observed. Concentration dependences upon the proton chemical shifts were examined. Dilution coefficients (Δδ/Δc), which arose from the concentration dependences, were obtained by assuming linear relationships betwwen shift and concentration. Solvent effects were discussed in detail by examining correlativities between the dilution coefficients to proton and between those to solvent by means of the correlation analysis. It was found that solvent effects on the chemical shifts of each ring proton were successfully accounted for by considering chiefly the two terms of contributions which arose from aromatic solvent-induced shifts (ASIS) and substituent-solvent interaction. It was concluded that the two dimensional correlation analysis was a useful method to discuss the solvent effect on each ring proton of the aromatic compound when the small shifts were induced by only change of concentration.
The screenig tests of 34 doping drugs extracted with chloroform-n-butanol (95 : 5) from horse urine samples were examined on a thin-layer stick of silica gel containing mixed fluorescent substance and microcrystalline cellulose. After over-spotting of 1% ethanol solution of phenolphthalein as an internal standard substance, the stick was developed with chloroform : acetone : methanol (9 : 1 : 1). Thin-layer sticks developed with a solvent mixture were allowed to dry in air and then immersed for a short time in a color reagent. The analysis of horse urine containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) were examined with 2 kinds of developing solvents of n-hexane : acetone (1 : 1) and chloroform : methanol (3 : 1). Attempts for the detection of barbiturate were also made to determine whether dipping front of the chromatographic stick in the sample solution rather than spotting it with the sample solution might be satisfactorily efficient. The tests yielded gratifying results with respect to the efficiency of detection and with the simplicity of the procedure.
A specific and sensitive gas chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of clofexamide, (2-(p-chlorophenoxy)-N-(2-diethylaminoethyl)-acetamide), and its two N-dealkylated metabolites in the plasma. The method involves a solvent extraction, trifluoroacetylation and analysis by gas chromatography on a 5% OV-17 column with flame thermionic detection. The N-(2-methylaminopropyl) analogue of clofexamide was used as an internal standard. The plasma concentration of each substance can be measured at the levels down to 4 ng/ml. The method was applied to determine the plasma levels of intact clofexamide and the metabolites after intravenous and oral administration to rabbits.
Ergosterol-5, 8-peroxide (I) was isolated from a variation of Cercospora kikuchii obtained by irradiation with light. It showed potent cytotoxicity (IC50=3.5 μg/ml) against mouse lymphemia L-1210/v/c in vitro, but exhibited no significant antitumor activity against both leukemia P-388 in CDF1 mouse and sarcoma 180 in dd mouse. Peroxide I also did not affect on both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
Non-linear least square method has become an indispensable procedure for the analysis of pharmacokinetic data. This method, however, occasionally gives much bigger sum of square value to make the computation chaotic. To overcome this difficulty, various procedures have been devised. In this connection, after deliberation of characteristic features of normal equation and its coefficient matrix, "temporal discard" procedure was designed. When failed to give smaller sum of square value, the row and the column of the coefficient matrix which includes the biggest or the smallest element on the principal diagonal are discarded. The search for the least square parameters is continued with smaller normal matrix thus obtained. Preliminary test calculation gave satisfactory results.
The five crystal phases of cephalexin were prepared and characterized by infrared spectrum, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction. Phase I (anhydride) was obtained by drying at 130°C under vacuum in P2O5 desiccator. Phase II (dihydrate) was obtained by absorbing water under 95% of relative humidity (R.H.). Phase III (demethanolate) was obtained by storage under vacuum in P2O5 desiccator. Phase IV, the most stable monohydrate, was obtained by patent preparation. Phase V (deacetonitorilate) was obtained by heating at 40°C under vacuum. Phase I and phase II were stored under 0-95% of R.H. at 35°C for 2 weeks. When phase I was stored under more than 20% of R.H., it absorbed about I mol equivalent of water and was transformed into the monohydrate (phase IV). When phase I was stored under 95% of R.H., it was transformed into the dihydrate (phase II). When phase II was stored under less than 62% of R.H., it lost about 1 mol equivalent of water and was transformed into phase IV. When phase II was stored under 0% of R.H., it was transformed into phase I (anhydride). When the most stable phase IV was stored under 0% of R.H. without heating, it lost about 1 mol equivalent of water, and was transformed into phase IV' (anhydride). Phase III absorbed about 1/2 mol equivalent of water under 11-62% of R.H. When phase III was stored under 95% of R.H., it absorbed more than 2 mol equivalent of water, and was transformed into phase II. Phase V absorbed water proportional to R.H. under more than 20% of R.H.
A new series of hydrocortisone 17, 21-diesters was prepared and their antiinflammatory activity was evaluated by the croton oil ear edema inhibition test in rats. The most potent compound was hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate which was more active than betamethasone 17-valerate.
Effects of basic (BASE) and additional (A, B, C) prescriptions in Saiko-prescriptions on the isolated smooth and cardiac muscles of rats and guinea-pigs were examined. All of BASE, A, B and C showed unequivocal anti-acetylcholine and anti-histamine actions in the isolated guinea-pig ileum. The simultaneous application of BASE and each addition showed more potent anti-acetylcholine and anti-histamine actions. BASE and BASE+A also had strong anti-barium ion action. The noradrenaline-induced contraction of isolated guinea-pig vas deferens was inhibited by BASE, A and BASE+A, whereas it was potentiated by B, C, BASE+B and BASE+C. Thus the inhibitory effect of BASE on this tissue was abolished in the presence of B or C. The spontaneous motility of isolated rat uterus was enhanced by BASE, but it was inhibited by A, B and BASE+A. The heart rates in spontaneous beating atria of guinea-pigs were reduced by B, C, BASE+A, BASE+B and BASE+C, but was not by A.
Effects of basic prescription (BASE) in Saiko-prescriptions and five crude drugs contained in BASE on the isolated intestinal smooth muscles of rats were examined. BASE caused a relaxation of the isolated ileum and colon. BASE, Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix showed anti-acetylcholine and anti-barium ion actions in the isolated colon, but Zizyphi Inermi Fructus did not. The anti-acetylcholine and anti-barium ion activity of Bupleuri Radix increased in the presence of Scutellariae Radix or/and Pinelliae Tuber, indicating that the action of BASE on the colon may be mainly due to that of Bupleuri Radix, Scutellariae Radix and Pinelliae Tuber. In addition, organic solvent extraction of BASE was performed and the n-BuOH extract (Fraction W4) exerted strong anti-acetylcholine and anti-barium ion actions which was more ten times BASE itself.
From the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis GEORGI., a new flavonoid, 5, 7, 2', 6'-tetrahydroxyflavone, was isolated, together with 5, 8-dihydroxy-6, 7-dimethoxyflavone and 5, 7, 4'-trihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone. Besides, 7-O-glucuronide methyl esters of wogonin, oroxylin A and baicalein were obtained, which were, however, proved to be the artifacts derived from the corresponding compounds without having methyl ester during the extraction with MeOH.
(+)-Samidin (III) was isolated from the roots of Peucedanum japonicum and proved to be an antipode of the samidin from Ammi visnaga on the basis of the structures of two ethylkhellactones (IV and V) and a partial alkaline hydrolysis product (VI).
The photo-stability and the structures of photo-oxidation products of ethylenediamine and propylenediamine in aqueous solutions with or without theophylline were investigated. Formaldehyde formed from ethylenediamine and propylenediamine, and acetaldehyde from propylenediamine were characterized as 2, 4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. Glyoxal formed from ethylenediamine was characterized as glyoxime. It was found that photodegradation of ethylenediamine and propylenediamine was more rapid in aqueous solutions than in aqueous theophylline solutions.