We propose new hypotheses for the mechanisms of streptozotocin (STZ) and alloxan inducing experimental diabetes in animals. STZ is transported into pancreatic β cells through glucose transporter in the cell membranes and attacks mitochondria. Mitochondrial ATP generation is inhibited and the resulting high concentration of intracellular ADP causes its degradation providing hypoxanthine, a substrate of xanthine oxidase (XOD) whose activity is intrinsically very high in β cells. Then, XOD-catalyzing reaction is proceeded as proved by increased formation of uric acid and O2- radicals are produced, but β cells are inefficient to scavenge these radicals because of their extremely low activity of superoxide dismutase. On the other hand, STZ directly activates XOD and enhances O2- generation. Consequently, pancreatic β cells are dually suffered from O2- radicals or probably hydroxyl radicals derived from the former when exposed to STZ. Allopurinol, an inhibitor of XOD, can protect animals from the diabetogenic effect of STZ. In pancreatic β cells, alloxan anion radicals are generated from alloxan probably mediated by the action of microsomal cytochrome P-450 system. These radicals have long half-life and directly damage DNA in vitro. The widely accepted hypothesis that the cause of alloxan-induced diabetes is attributable to O2- radicals formed from alloxan is excluded, because alloxan itself shows a very potent scavenging effect to O2- radicals. Therefore alloxan anion radicals seem to be directly related to the incidence of diabetes by alloxan.
To reduce the vascular contracting effect of the hydrogenated cardiac glycosides, 20-(R)- and 20-(S)-tetrahydroproscillaridins (THPs, 1a, 1b), and to extend the concentration-dependent range, mono- and dinitrates of THPs were prepared. The pharmacological activities of the nitrates of THP were evaluated by use of iso1ated guinea-pig papillary muscle preparations and Na+, K+-adenosine triphosphatase preparations from dog kidney. Furthermore, the effect for smooth muscle was examined using the helical strips isolated from 13- week-old spontaneously hypertensive rat. The positive inotropic effects of mononitrates (11a, 11b, 2a, 2b, 8a, and 8b) were more potent than those of THPs. Nitration of the sugar moiety in THPs resulted in a vascular relaxing effect unobserved in the case of THPs.
A series of methyl 9H-pyridazino[3, 4-b]indole-3-carboxylates and related compounds were synthesized using a Diels-Alder reaction of methyl 3- (1H-indol-3-yl)-2-propenoates and dibenzyl azodicarboxylate. Several compounds were found to have high affinity for the benzodiazepine receptor. Their structure-activity relationships are discussed.
The fresh rhizomes of Curcuma xanthorrhiza ROXB. were investigated for terpenoids and curcuminoids. Nine sesquiterpenoids, a-curcumene (1), arturmerone (2), xanthorrhizol (3), germacrone (4), β-curcumene (6), β-sesquiphellandrene (9), curzerenone (10), α-turmerone (11) and β-turmerone (12), and three curcuminoids, curcumin (7), mono-demethoxycurcumin (8) and bis-demethoxycurcumin (13), were isolated and one monoterpenoid, camphor (5), was identified by capillary GC-MS. Four species of C. xanthorrhiza could be classified into two chemotypes by their bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid compositions. The first type contained large amounts of 2, 11 and 12 (CX I type). The second type contained large amounts of 1, 3 and 6, and none of 2, 9, 11 and 12 (CX 11 type). These two chemotypes, CX I type and CX II type, were compared with the two chemotypes of C. longa L., CL I type and CL II type, on their contents by capillary GC and HPLC analysis. It was found that all of them contained curcuminoids, 7, 8 and 13 and large amounts of various bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoids.
In order to determine the strain differences in learning of swimming behavior and to study the influence of vasopressin or its derivatives on hemicholinium-3-induced impairment of water maze learning in mice, we designed a new apparatus using water maze which has three panels in small fish breeding water bath (L60×W30×H36cm). In the first swimming, six strains of adult male mice, ICR, ddY, ddN, C3H/He, BALB/C and C57BL were subjected to learn swimming behavior twice a day for 6 d in a straight course. Only ICR, ddN, C57BL and BALB/C strain mice were chosen for the next experiment. In the second swimming, mice (ICR, ddN, C57BL, BALB/C) were swum in the water maze apparatus. Scopolamine-induced impairment of water maze learning was produced only in ICR, BALB/C mice, but not in C57BL and ddN strain, which was recovered by physostigmine. Amnesia was not obtained by intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v.) of cycloheximide and AlCl3, in mice (ICR). Hemicholinium-induced amnesia was improved by vasopressin and desmopressin. Lysine-vasopressin and oxytocin were without affecting hemicholinium-induced amnesia. Pretreatment with a vasopressin antagonist, ([1-(β-mercapto-β, β-cyclopenta-methylene propionic acid), 2-(o-methyl)tyrosine arginine]-vasopressin) resulted in a reversible effect on the improvement of hemicholinium-induced amnesia by vasopressin. Of four different strain mice, ICR mice were the most preferable to the presently used test. They were also more responsive to hemicholinium and vasopressin than the other strains. These results suggest that the simple water maze apparatus may be useful for a preexamination of nootropics or a study of learning of swimming behavior in mice.
We studied the effects of etoposide on the influx, intracellular accumulation and efflux of ara-C in P388 leukemic cells. Etoposide inhibited the active influx of ara-C in a dose dependent manner, and the inhibition was reversible. Etoposide also affected the intracellular accumulation of ara-C, though its inhibitory effect for the intracellular accumulation was weaker than that for the influx of ara-C. It was also shown that etoposide inhibited the active efflux of ara-C. Furthermore, etoposide inhibited the active transport or ara-C bidirectionally but the insensitive route or etoposide existed especially at high concentration of ara-C. The effect of inhibition of the transport of ara-C on the accumulation of ara-C was more significant at lower concentration of ara-C. Judging from the drug concentrations used in this study, an interaction between etoposide and ara-C could occur in the clinical treatment.
The biochemical activity of cepharanthine and the possible mechanism by which it reverses the resistance to doxorubicin in P388 leukemia cells were examined in vitro. The microfluorometric analysis of the cellular level of doxorubicin in drug-resistant cells showed that cepharanthine markedly enhanced the sensitivity of doxorubicin against resistant cells in the cellular level. Cepharanthine also enhanced the inhibitory effect of doxorunbicin on the incorporation of thymidine into DNA in resistant cells. The analysis of DNA histogram obtained by flow cytometry showed that doxorubicin exerted its growth-inhibitory effect by blocking the cell cycle at the G2 phase in P388 cells, At higher concentrations, doxorubicin prolonged the S phase and inhibited cell cycle progression to the G2/M phase in cells. The treatment with cepharanthine potentiated these blocking effects induced by doxorubicin in cells. It seems that the modifications of the biological effect of doxorubicin by cepharanthine are due to the change of their ability to induce DNA damage in cells.
The influence of the 70% methanolic extract (RMe) from Red Ginseng (a steamed and dried root of Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER) on the antitumor activity of mitomycin C (MMC) against rat ascites hepatoma AH 130 was investigated. In the case of a solid tumor, RMe at oral doses of 200, 500 mg/kg showed an inhibitory effect, but RMe was ineffective in the case of an ascites tumor. MMC combined with RMe showed a stronger antitumor effect than MMC alone. Moreover, RMe inhibited the pulmonary metastases of the tumor cells, as well as the decrease of blood platelet counts and of the fibrinogen level induced by the infusion of the tumor cells in rats. Furthermore, RMe promoted the uptake of MMC into the tumor cells and enhanced in vitro the cytotoxicity of MMC against the cultured tumor cells.
The influence of various fractions and ginsenosides from the 70% methanolic extract (RMe) of Red Ginseng (a steamed and dried root of Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER) on the cytocidal effect of mitomycin C (MMC) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma was investigated in vitro. The Ac0Et soluble portion (RMe-I) showed an increasing effect on the activities of lysosomal enzymes in the cultured tumor cells. RMe-I promoted the uptake of MMC into the tumor cells and enhanced the cytotoxicity of MMC against the cultured tumor cells. 20(S)-, 20(R)-ginsenoside Rg3 and ginsenoside Rh2 isolated from RMe-I promoted the uptake of MMC into the tumor cells but ginsenosides from the n-Bu0H soluble portion (RME-II) had no effect. Furthermore, the influence of RMe and the 70% methanolic extract (WMe) from White Ginseng (a dried root of Panax ginseng C. A. MEYER) on the cytocidal effect of MMC was investigated in vivo. MMC combined with RMe showed stronger antitumor effects against the ascites form of mouse Ehrlich ascites carcinoma and rat ascites hepatoma AH 130 than MMC combined with WMe. The activities of lysosomal enzymes in tumor cells were also more increased in comparison with that combined MMC and WMe.
Four ether-soluble resin glycosidses (jalapins), marubajalapins VIII-XI previously obtained from the aerial part of Pharbitis purturea, were characterized on the basis of chemical and spectral data. All of them and marubajalapin VII reported in the previous paper are mutually positional isomers composed of 3 mol of n-octanoic acid and 1 mol of operculinic acid E having a macrocyclic ester structure.